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Mastercraftsmen 
of Ancient Peru 





Rivers 

• Early Sites 

• CULTURAL AREAS 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum Library and Archives 



http://www.archive.org/details/mastercraftsmenoOOsawy 



Mastercraftsmen of 
Ancient Peru 



ALAN R. SAWYER 




Published by The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, New York, 1968 
Library of Congress Card Catalogue Number: 68-56627 
All Rights Reserved, Printed in The Netherlands 



TRUSTEES, THE SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM FOUNDATION 



Harry F. Guggenheim, President 

Albert E. Thiele, Vice President 

H. H. Arnason, Vice President, Art Administration 

Peter O. Lawson-Johnston, Vice President, Business Administration 

Eleanor, Countess Castle Stewart 

Henry Allen Moe 

Bill D. Meyers 

A. Chauncey Newlin 

Mrs. Henry Obre 

Daniel Catton Rich 

Michael F. Wettach 

Carl Zigrosser 



LENDERS TO THE EXHIBITION 



NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



Museo Nacional de Antropologia y Arqueologia, Pueblo Libre 
*MNA Dr. Jorge C. Muelle, Director. 

Museo Arqueologico Bruning, Lambayeque. 

MBL Dr. Oscar Fernandez de Cordova, Director. 

Museo de Arqueologia, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. 
MAT Dr. Jorge Zevallos Quinones, Director. 

Institute de Antropologia y Agricultura Precolombiana, 
Universidad Agraria del Peru. 

lAA Dr. Frederick Engel, Director. 

Museo Arqueologico, Gran Unidad Escolar Santa Isabel, Huancayo. 
HYO Dr. IHector Zegarra y Apavio, Director 

Museo Historico de Ayacucho, 

AYO Dr. Cesar O. Prado Paredes. Director. 

Museo Regional de lea, 

MR] Dr. Adolf o Bermudez Jenkins, Director. 



PRIVATE COLLECTIONS 



The names of the owners are listed after the title of the collection when different 



HA Honorato Amado 

MA Museo Amano 

Yoshitaro Amano 

RA Raul Apesteguia 

LC Luis Camino 

AC J- Alex Ciurlizza 

HC Hugo Cohen Collection 
Elsa Letts de Cohen 

SD Sixtilio Dalmau 

EG Elena Gaffron 

GG Guillermo Ganoza 

TG Toto Giurato 



Lima-Nazca 
Lima 

Lima 

Lima-Palpa 
Lima 
Lima 

Lima 
Lima 
Trujillo 
Lima 



*These abbreviations are used throughout the checklist to 
indentify the lender 



WG Walter Gross 

ML Museo Larco Herrera 
Isolina de Larco 

Isabel Larco de Alvarez Calderon 
Carola Larco de Sarria 



Lima 
Lima 



MM 


Manuel Mujica Gallo 


Chosica 


EN 


Eugenic Nicolini Iglesias 


Lima 


JP 


Juan Luis Pereira 


Lima 


AR 


Aldo Rubini Drago 


Ocucaje 


OS 


Carlos Soldi Collection 
Ana Maria de Soldi 


Lima 


ES 


E. A. Sellschopp 


Lima 


DS 


Domingo Seminarlo Urrutia 


LIma-Piura 


PS 


Fritz Smischek 


Trujillo 


GS 


Gonzalo del Solar 


Lima 


SZ 


Fernando de Szyszio 


Lima 


FT 


Felipe Thorndike 


Lima-Chosica 


PT 


Paul Truel 


Lima-Ocucaje 


HZ 


Harold Zoeger Silva 


Pimentel-Chlclayo 



SUPPLEMENTARY LOANS 



ANON Eight anonymous private collectors The United States 

Brazil 
Argentina 

AMNH American Museum of Natural History New York City 

Chicago 



AlCG The Art Institute of Chicago 
(Gaffron Collection) 

TMDC The Textile Museum 



Washington, D. C 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum ordinarily chooses to 
devote its exhibition and publication program to painting and 
sculpture of the modern era, a designation intended to comprise 
the last hundred years, from the emergence of Impressionism to 
our time. MASTERCRAFTSMEN OF ANCIENT PERU as here pre- 
sented is, therefore, an innovation as well as an experiment which 
the Foundation's Trustees approved as a possible precursor to 
other exhibitions surveying the creative richess of a particular, 
now historic, civilization. Peru seemed a promising subject to 
begin such visual inquiries, for its many levelled Pre-Columbian 
cultures, stretching partly in chronological, partly overlapping 
sequences through centuries, are mirrored in objects which 
become, simultaneously, carriers of a great episode in the civili- 
zation of mankind and an autonomous achievement speaking 
through its perfection to modern sensibilities. 
For the purposes of the current exhibition project, more than 600 
objects, large and small, representational and decorative, func- 
tional and symbolic, in stone, wood, metal, clay and in fabric, 
have been assembled from divergent sources to constitute the 
most comprehensive such view of Peru's collective genius ever 
attempted. An exhibition of such scope is always an undertaking 
that depends upon the generous participation of many, variously 
qualified individuals. This is even more true with a subject that 
lies beyond the Museum's curatorial competence and of a project 
that required years of search and preparation in distant parts of 
the world, outside the bounds and conventions of a familiar art 
world. Thus, to a more exclusive degree than with subjects more 
familiar to us, the curatorial responsibility for this exhibition was 
placed in the hands of a specialist in the field. Dr. Alan Sawyer, 
Director of The Textile Museum in Washington, D.C. and Peru- 
vian scholar, was one of the few individuals to whom this show 
and its accompanying catalogue could be safely entrusted, and 
who therefore was appointed curator of the exhibition. 
Dr. Sawyer, on his frequent journeys through the Peruvian lands 
was accompanied by staff members of the Guggenheim Museum, 
partly to assist with the securing of loans, but chiefly to inject 
the Museum's presence in the inevitably complex and highly 
responsible negotiations with lenders, museums, and government 
officials, who in concert with the curator of the exhibition and 
with our administrative staff gradually cleared the formidable 
obstacles to the project. Special thanks are due to Everett Ellin, 
formerly Assistant to the Director, and to Orrin H. Riley, Con- 
servator, who during the past three years spelled each other in 
the completion of this task. Mr. Riley, in addition, must be 
credited with having devised methods through which the safe 
transfer of objects could be assured, first from the far reaches 
of Peru to a central gathering point in Lima, and eventually from 
the Peruvian capital to New York City. The last phase of Mr. 
Riley's contribution is the installation on the ramps of the Frank 
Lloyd Wright building which through its ready adaptation to yet 
another untried exhibition type proved again its great versatility 
under conditions of competent planning and execution. 
It would have been more convenient to rely on sources of easy 
access, but it was decided in the initial exhibition phases, to avoid 



expedients so as to arrive at an exhibition based almost wholly 
upon material previously unseen in this country. The lending 
burden, therefore, rested heavily upon the country of origin where 
twenty-five private individuals and seven National Museums, in 
full awareness of the cultural significance of this event, went far 
beyond the bounds of normal participation, as they decided to 
part for more than standard exhibition time with objects of un- 
common rarity and beauty. 

Even so, there is reason to doubt, that MASTERCRAFTSMEN OF 
ANCIENT PERU could have been presented at the Guggenheim 
Museum, had it not been possible to count on the most consistent 
and effective support from the highest authorities in the country 
of origin. We are greatly indebted to His Excellency, President 
Fernando Belaunde Terry and His Excellency, Ambassador Celso 
Pastor de la Torre for their unfailing support throughout the four 
years during which this exhibition has been in preparation. 
Others in both Peru and the United States made, at various times, 
decisive contributions towards the success of the exhibition. Not 
to exceed the format of this brief roster of acknowledgements 
their part must be mentioned in much abbreviated fashion 
although not without sincere gratitude for invaluable services 
rendered. Among Lima citizens ever ready to furnish needed 
guidance and assistance, were in particular Walter Gross, Alex 
Ciurlizza and other members of the Institute of Contemporary Art, 
Manuel Checa Solari, Carmen Gonzales, Elena Gaffron, Juana 
True!, Gene Savoy, Pedro Rojas Ponce and Gonzalo del Solar. 
Mr. Ciurlizza and Manual Ulloa took an active part in obtain- 
ing, through private subscription funds, a scholarship enabling a 
Peruvian student to join the project here and thereby derive 
useful instruction in Museum methods eventually to be applied 
in his own country. 

William Kaplan offered many hours of his time and skill to aid 
the Guggenheim Museum in the preparation of the works for 
exhibition. 

I wish to acknowledge gratefully financial contributions made in 
the form of free and reduced services by the Official Tourist 
Bureau, Grace Lines, Braniff International Airlines, Eastern Air- 
lines, Faucett Airlines, The Hotel Crillon, and Ford Motor Com- 
pany. We are also appreciative of the care and efficiency of the 
Peruvian investigation police in safeguarding the loans during 
their assembly. 

A few desired loans could not be negotiated in Peru and thanks 
are due to eight anonymous private collectors of the United 
States, Brazil and Argentina together with the American Museum 
of Natural History in New York, The Art Institute of Chicago and 
The Textile Museum of Washington, D.C. for select supplemen- 
tary loans. 

It would be unjust not to mention in closing the quietly effective 
part played by all Museum Departments in the staging of 
MASTERCRAFTSMEN OF ANCIENT PERU, an exhibition that 
will, within our ranks, be long remembered as one of the most 
exacting and rewarding ever presented. 

THOMAS M, MESSER, Director 
The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum 



INTRODUCTION 



The Spanish conquistadors of the early 16th Century were tough, 
determined, and resourceful men, stripped of tolerance and com- 
passion by the Inquisition and hardened by Spain's bitter struggle 
to drive the Moslems from their homeland. They were fired by the 
adventurer's lust for easy riches and had but slight awareness of 
the great intellectual and artistic achievements of the civilizations 
they destroyed. Beautifully wrought ritual objects of gold and 
silver were melted down. Exquisitely woven textiles and beauti- 
fully fashioned objects of ceramic and other materials were cast 
aside as worthless or destroyed in iconoclastic zeal. 
After the splendid kingdoms of Mexico and Central America had 
been sacked in rapid succession, enriching the participants 
beyond imagination and sending a steady stream of treasure back 
to mother Spain, those who had not yet made their fortunes turned 
southward to the fabled realm of the Incas. The conquest of Peru 
was swift and final. In 1532 Francisco Pizarro landed at Tumbes, 
just south of the present Ecuadorian border, with less than 200 
followers. Within a few months he had captured the Inca Ata- 
hualpa by treachery, exacted a huge ransom, and put him to 
death. Then, reinforced by 150 men under Diego de Almagro, he 
quickly routed the native armies, disorganized by the loss of their 
absolute ruler, and methodically set about looting the great cities 
of the Inca Empire. By 1536 the last organized resistance was 
crushed. In the fighting among the victors over the spoils both 
Almagro and Pizarro met death. 

Throughout the Colonial period that followed, the treasure hunt 
went on. The land was divided among the victors and favorites of 
the Spanish crown while the population was forced to work the 
mines and ransack the temples and cemeteries of their ancestors 
for precious metals. Attempts by the crown to lay claim to the 
treasure were largely ignored as were its administrative reforms 
aimed at protecting the Indians. In 1 780 a widespread insurrection 
led by Tupac Amaru II was brutally suppressed. In 1820 Peru 
joined its neighboring South American colonies in a successful 
revolt against Spain, leaving the country solidly under the control 
of the landowners. 

Meanwhile, in Europe and North America the end of the 18th 
Century saw a great reawakening of interest in antiquity stimu- 
lated by Winckelmann's discoveries at Herculaneum and Pompeii 
and the archeological plunder brought back by Napoleon's sol- 
diers after their invasion of Egypt. Inevitably this new wave of 
interest spread to the long overlooked ancient civilizations of 
the Americas. 

John Lloyd Stethens and Frederick Catherwood began their trail 
blazing explorations of Maya ruins in 1839. The sensation created 
by the publication of their Incidents of Travel in Yucatan was 
closely followed by that stirred by William H. Prescott's thorough- 
ly researched and eminently readable The Conquest of Mexico. 
In 1847 his equally remarkable The Conquest of Peru appeared, 
focusing public attention for the first time in three centuries on 
the ancient heritage of that remote and almost forgotten land. 
In 1 863 the famed pioneer American archeologist Ephriam George 
Squier arrived in Peru and for 3 years traveled throughout the 
coast and highlands filling notebooks with accurate observations 



and detailed plans of ancient ruins. His profusely illustrated 
account, Peru; Incidents of Travel and Exploration in the Land of 
the Incas, published in 1877, laid the cornerstone of Peruvian 
archeology. 

The interest and involvement of the scholarly community in 
ancient Peruvian studies gradually increased during the remainder 
of the 19th Century. It culminated in the extensive excavations 
conducted by Max Uhle in the 1890's and the early years of this 
century, for various American institutions. In addition to materials 
brought back by archeologists, large collections of Peruvian antiq- 
uities that had been gathered by hacienda owners, foreign 
residents, and travelers, found their way into European and 
American museums. 

In 1911 Hiram Bingham startled the world with his discovery of 
Machu Picchu. Two years later the Peruvian government estab- 
lished its National Museum of Anthropology and Archeology 
under the directorship of Dr. Julio C. Tello. The appearance of 
this dedicated and gifted man on the Peruvian archeological scene 
could not have been more timely. With extraordinary energy he 
conducted reconnaissance and excavation of ancient sites 
throughout the length and breadth of Peru and assembled at the 
National Museum the largest and most comprehensive collection 
of Peruvian antiquities in the world. His sensational discoveries 
stimulated an ever-increasing number of Peruvian and foreign 
archeologists to turn their talents and energies toward unveiling 
the mysteries of Peru's past. After his death in 1947 his spirit 
continued to be a primary source of inspiration to those who 
followed in his footsteps. 

The role that the private collector has played in Peruvian art and 
archeology cannot be minimized. Almost invariably he has freely 
shared his collection and his knowledge with the archeologist 
and art historian and in some cases has developed outstanding 
scholarship in his own right. This was particularly true of Don 
Rafael Larco Hoyle, founder of the Larco Herrera Museum, whose 
contribution to our knowledge of Peruvian prehistory ranks 
second only to that of Dr. Tello, Most Peruvian collectors have 
been closely associated with the land from which their collections 
derived. Their interest has tended to be strongly antiquarian 
though they were also moved by the esthetic qualities of their 
possessions. In recent years their ranks have been joined by an 
increasing number of art-oriented collectors located principally 
in Lima. Together they hold an important segment of the nation's 
historic treasure. 

With the advent of the collector in the 19th Century, a new 
profession was created, that of the "huaquero" or pot hunter. He 
was a direct descendant of the colonial laborer used by the land- 
owner in his search of precious metals. Now he was employed in 
the systematic looting of ancient cemeteries not only for objects 
of gold and silver, which had come to be worth more as art than 
as precious metal, but for pottery, textiles and other artifacts. As 
the demand increased, greater profits were to be realized and the 
huaqueros soon began digging clandestinely on their own. A new 
wave of pillage spread across the land compounding the damage 
to ancient sites wrought by colonial treasure hunters. 



In their hasty probing for saleable objects, the huaqueros not only 
destroyed or seriously damaged fragile materials but Irrevocably 
lost information important to the scholar such as association and 
provenience. Tello had the practice outlawed In 1930 but It has 
been difficult to control, especially In sparsely populated rural 
areas. The problem resembles that of the sorcerer's apprentice. 
Today the looting still goes on, aided and abetted by public 
Indifference, a rising art market, and the depressed economic 
status of the lower class. "Huaqueando" is about the only means 
Its members have of breaking the grip of poverty. It is a sad fact 
that, In spite of the dedicated efforts of many archeologlsts, the 
majority of ancient Peruvian art objects In public and private col- 
lections of the world today derived from huaquero activity. 
As the twentieth century has progressed, there has been an 
ever-Increasing awareness of the artistic as well as the archeo- 
loglcal aspects of Peruvian antiquities. Because of the relative 
inaccessibility of Peru before the advent of air travel, however, 
world recognition of the art of ancient Peru has tended to lag 
somewhat behind that of Mexico and Central America. It was not 
until the 1950's that It began to be given Its rightful place In art 
museums beside objects representing other great art traditions. 
In 1952 The Art Institute of Chicago placed on exhibition the 
famous collection of Dr. Edward Gaffron assembled In Peru during 
the 19th Century and made famous through German publications. 
It was soon to form the founding acquisition of the Institute's 
Department of Primitive Art — the first such department estab- 
lished in a major art museum. In 1954 the Museum of Modern Art 
presented Its renowned "Ancient Arts of the Andes" show which 
Included objects from all the western South American countries, 
assembled by Rene d'Harnoncourt from sources In Europe, the 
United States, and South America. The exhibition travelled to 
Minneapolis and San Francisco. 

In 1955 Peru sent an exhibition of ancient, colonial, and modern 
Peruvian art to Mexico City and Toronto followed by a larger 
exhibit of the same type shown in 1957 in Paris. Since that time 
there have been numerous exhibitions of varying size and 
emphasis in museums throughout the world. The present ex- 
hibition Is the largest, most comprehensive and, we believe, the 
most selective ever assembled of those limited to the country's 
ancient heritage. It has been drawn almost entirely from seven 
national museums and twenty-six private collections In Peru. A 
large proportion of the objects shown have never before been 
exhibited or published outside the country. 

GEOGRAPHY 

To understand the complexity of Ancient Peruvian cultural history 
one must begin with an awareness of the country's diverse and 
hostile geography. Formidable physical barriers tended to sep- 
arate the population Into more or less Isolated groups. Progress 
towards civilization was the result of the ancient Peruvians' 
organized efforts to survive and prosper within the harsh limi- 
tations of their environment. A brief discussion of the three prin- 
cipal geographical zones of Peru will afford the reader an under- 
standing of the character of the ancient civilizations they produced 



and some comprehension of the problems facing the modern 
researcher in his attempts to reconstruct the history of these 
areas. 

THE COAST 

The most accessible and best l<nown area of Peru is its narrow 
coastal plain cut at uneven intervals by about forty river valleys. 
These valleys vary considerably in size, and in the amount of 
vi^ater their rivers bring dov\/n from the mountains. Some streams 
flow to the sea all year round, while others furnish water for a 
relatively short period. In ancient times survival depended on the 
efficient use of water by irrigation and the stock piling of staple 
foods such as corn and beans against long periods of drought. 
The climate was ideal but life was always precarious. Natural 
disasters such as flash floods or earthquakes could destroy cities 
and irrigation systems without warning, and the population had 
to be constantly alert against armed invasion by peoples from 
less fortunate climes. Even the sea, an important source of food, 
was subject to unpredictable cycles of fecundity. 
Quite naturally, the more extensive and well watered valleys, 
which could support large populations, became the homes of the 
more advanced ancient civilizations. Groups of valleys in close 
geographic proximity tended to form federations for greater 
economic and military security. Population centers were con- 
centrated along the valley's desert margins and on land elevated 
above the broad intensively cultivated valley floor. Preference 
was given to sites that were easily defensible and further pro- 
tection was afforded by strategically placed walls and garrisoned 
fortifications. Since rains were rare and no threat to adobe 
building, most construction was of that material. 
Because of their wealth and accessibility, the coastal cities were 
among the first to be sacked during the conquest, and during the 
colonial treasure hunt and subsequent huaquero activity scarcely 
a coastal site large or small escaped being plundered. Architec- 
tural remains not destroyed in the pillage have suffered from 
earthquakes and wind-driven sand. In the north they have also 
been eroded by infrequent rains. Yet there is one great com- 
pensation to the archeologist faced with such handicaps. The 
preservation of archeological materials in the arid sandy wastes 
of the coast is remarkable. Fragile textiles, feather work and 
other perishable materials are often found in almost perfect 
condition. 

Strange as it may seem, many of the largest and most impressive 
ruins on the coast are among the least understood. Their thorough 
study will require sustained archeological campaigns such as 
have characterized the archeology of the Mediterranean area but 
which have not yet been initiated in Peru. 

THE HIGHLANDS 

The second important geographical zone of Peru is composed of 
the incredibly rugged Central Andes crowded with peaks rising 
as high as 22,205 feet above sea level. To the north, the zone is 
comparatively narrow and is made up of ranges running roughly 
parallel to the coast. These broaden out in the central highlands 



and in the south form a vast high plateau much of which is barren 
and inhospitable. 

Water is plentiful throughout much of this zone but, because of 
the high altitude and harsh topography, only a few of the more 
extensive highland basins and intermountain valleys were capable 
of supporting large unified populations. Life in the highlands was 
and is hard. Floods, landslides, and earthquakes are an ever 
present menace. The practice of agriculture is difficult and travel 
is arduous in the rugged terrain and lung-bursting altitudes, yet 
the Andean Indian long ago became well adapted to his strenuous 
environment. His carefully terraced fields climb up the mountain 
sides to 16,000 feet and higher, and a vast network of trails 
traverses the steep scarps and mountain ridges where modern 
roads cannot follow. The ruins of countless well constructed 
stone cities and fortifications give eloquent testimony to the 
organization, skill, and tenacity of the ancient population. As we 
shall soon see, three times in the history of ancient Peru highland 
peoples were able to bring all, or nearly all, of the Central Andean 
area under their sway. 

Much of the highland area has been explored by archeologists 
but physical hardship has limited their excavations to a few 
samplings in some of the more accessible areas. Little is known 
of the regional cultures that lay outside the temporal span and 
sphere of influence of the three major Pan-Andean civilizations 
and even the history and origin of these is shrouded in mystery. 
Not only is the work of the archeologist more difficult in the high- 
lands but it is much less rewarding in terms of well preserved art 
objects than on the coast. Perishable materials such as textiles 
survive only under the most fortuitous circumstances. 

THE EASTERN SLOPES 

The third archeologically important zone of Peru is made up of the 
Jungle-shrouded eastern slopes of the Andes. It is an area of 
heavy rainfall where deeply cut valleys drop abruptly in altitude 
as they merge with the upper Amazon basin. For many years the 
zone was thought to be archeologically unimportant on the 
grounds that its dense tropical vegetation was incompatible with 
highland agricultural techniques. 

Persistent reports of large and impressive jungle cities tended to 
be ignored until in recent years the well documented and widely 
publicized discoveries of the American explorer Gene Savoy 
prodded the archeologists into action. Now an increasing number 
of scientific incursions into the zone have been made and excited 
reports of new discoveries follow in rapid succession. It is 
obvious that the area developed distinctive regional cultures of 
its own. Few ceramic styles have yet been identified and perish- 
able materials do not survive, but the architecture shows a 
preference for circular forms as opposed to the generally rec- 
tangular tradition of the highlands. 

In the vicinity of Pucallpa on the eastern limits of the zone, 
Donald Lothrop has conducted excavations which reveal a long 
unbroken sequence of highly sophisticated cultures in the area. 
Some of his earlier levels suggest relationships to the site of 
Kotosh in the Central Andes recently excavated by the University 



of Tokyo. As the eastern slopes of the Andes are opened up to 
the outside world by President Belaunde's new marginal highway, 
we may expect an ever Increasing number of important dis- 
coveries. Some may revolutionize our thinking about the origin 
and evolution of ancient Andean civilization. 

SUMMARY 

After a century of archeological Investigation, the broad outlines 
of ancient Peruvian cultural history in the coastal valleys are 
known, though our knowledge is far from complete. Only a few 
highland centers have been investigated and much remains to be 
done before we will fully understand the history and character 
of ancient civilizations in this important area. Of the eastern 
slopes of the Andes we know almost nothing other than its 
important potential as an area for future research. 
The exhibition, like the collections from which it is drawn, places 
vastly disproportionate emphasis on the coastal zone, and there- 
fore gives a distorted impression of ancient Andean civilizations. 
This is inevitable, not only because of the unequal attention the 
zones have received from archeologists (and the huaquero) but 
on account of drastically different conditions affecting the sur- 
vival of archeological materials. 

In selecting objects for the exhibition, the curator has placed 
primary emphasis on esthetic quality while at the same time seek- 
ing to present the major aspects of ancient Peruvian art. Special 
attention was given to major art styles such as Chavin and Vicus 
which have not previously been shown in quantity outside Peru. 
Ceramics, because of their consistent survival, make up the bulk 
of the show. Through the courtesy of the Trustees of The Textile 
Museum in Washington, D.C., some of the finest textiles in 
Peruvian collections have been cleaned and mounted for the 
exhibition under the supervision of their conservation staff. Many 
of the finest objects of gold in Peruvian collections recently 
toured the United States and most owners were therefore reluc- 
tant to lend them again after so short an interval of time. 
In the catalog of the exhibition that follows, the listing of each 
group of objects is preceded by a brief resume of their cultural 
background. Space does not permit a discussion of the many 
problems of chronology and cultural relationship which engage 
the Peruvianist. The curator has therefore had to state his inter- 
pretations without qualifying argument. 



PROLOGUE 



Peru's earliest inhabitants were nomadic bands of Stone Age hunt- 
ers, fishermen, and food gatherers who roamed the coast and 
highlands between seven and twelve thousand years ago and 
perhaps earlier. Subsequent occupation of the more inhabitable 
areas have obliterated all traces of their campsites but artifacts 
have been found in ancient shell middens along the Pacific shore, 
in highland caves, and in once verdant areas of the coastal desert 
left desolate by climate change. One such area is the Pampa de 
los Fosiles in the barren Cupisnique Quebrada located in the 
desert between the Chicama and Jequetepeque Valleys on the 
north coast. 

1. Three stone implements, Pampa de los Fosiles, Cupisnique, 
Quebrada, 10,000-5,000 B.C. FS * 

A. Projectile point, black stone, S'/g" long. 

B. Leaf-shaped scraper, yellow grey stone, 4" long. 

C. Boat-shaped scraper, grey stone, 4%" long. 

2, Two stone implements. Pampa de los Fosiles, Cupisnique, 
Quebrada, 10,000-5,000 B.C. ANQN 

A. Projectile point, grey stone, 4V8" long. 

B. Leaf-shaped blade, grey stone, 572 " long. 



16 * See lenders list for lull name, pp. 6-7. 



THE EARLIEST PERUVIAN ART 



THE EARLY CERAMIC PERIOD 



From about 5,000 to 3,000 B.C. there was a gradual transition 
throughout the central Andean area from the nomadic way of life 
to the establishment of permanent settlements utilizing domesti- 
cated plants and animals to supplement wild food supplies. At 
the site of one such community on the north coast, Huaca Prieta 
in the Chicama Valley, Dr. Junius B. Bird discovered the earliest 
known art objects of Peru. 

The stratified refuse of Huaca Prieta yielded a large number of 
fragments of twined cotton textiles that Dr. Bird has shown, 
through careful analysis of their warp movements, to have been 
ornamented with highly stylized bird, animal, human, and other 
motifs. He also found the fragile remains of two small beautifully 
carved gourds which, because of their dissimilarity to other ex- 
cavated materials, he has suggested were importations to the 
site. The surprising degree of sophistication in the designs of 
both the textiles and the gourds indicate that a considerable 
period of cultural development had preceded them. 

3. Twined cotton textile with design of condor, 8'/2x4%". 
Pre Ceramic Period, about 2,500 B.C. Huaca Prieta, Chicama 
Valley. AMNH 

4. Small gourd carved with anthropomorphic figures. The lid is 
ornamented with an S shaped device ending in bird heads. 
2yg" diameter. Pre Ceramic Period, about 2,500 B.C., Huaca 
Prieta, Chicama Valley. AMNH 



The earliest known ceramics from Peru are dated around 2,000 
B.C. By 1,500 B.C. the basic techniques of reduction and oxi- 
dation firing and modes of decoration such as incising, painting, 
and the use of clay slip were all being practiced. The following 
examples were excavated by Dr. Bird at a site close by Huaca 
Prieta. 

5. Clay stamp in the form of a bird, probably for decorating 
textiles. Red pigment, 11/2" h. Early Ceramic Period, about 
1 ,500 B.C., Chicama Valley. AMNH 

6. Solid clay figurine of seated hunchback, 2^/f^' h. Early 
Ceramic Period, about 1,500 B.C., Chicama Valley. AMNH 




19 



17 



THE ART OF CHAVIN 



HIGHLAND CHAVIN STONE CARVINGS 



The first great civilization of Peru crystalized in the northern 
highlands around 1,200 B.C. It is called Chavin after the most 
famous of its ceremonial centers at Chavin de Huantar, a little 
town in the Mosna Valley, one of the southernmost branches of 
the large Marainon Valley that bisects the Northern Andes, 
Another elaborate temple complex called Pacopampa is located 
over 200 miles to the north-west in the western reaches of the 
Maranon drainage. Many other Chavin sites have been found in 
the area between and in the valleys of the north coast. The 
influence of Chavin religion and its distinctive art style has been 
traced northward into Ecuador and south along the coast as far 
as the Nazca Valley, a span of 1 ,000 miles. 

In the light of present knowledge, the Chavin culture appeared 
suddenly, full grown, advanced in the arts and architecture, and 
motivated by a dynamic religion. This has led to speculation as to 
its possible relationships with the Chou Dynasty in China and the 
Olmec civilization of Mexico, both of which were contemporary. 
Chavin art features jungle creatures such as the jaguar, cayman, 
and serpent, and it is possible that the original home of the 
Chavin people may someday be found hidden under the dense 
tropical foliage of the little explored eastern slopes of the Andes. 




The symbolism of Chavin art is best displayed in the superb 
reliefs and carvings that ornamented the culture's principal stone 
structures. The basic elements are few: jaguar, human, bird of 
prey, cayman, and serpent, but they are combined with infinite 
complexity into apparitions of powerful supernatural beings. 
Since many of these carvings are massive and could not be 
moved, we supplemented our examples with rubbings taken from 
the originals by Fred D. Ayers, and lent to us by the American 
Museum of Natural History. The Chavin style is thought to have 
covered a period of about 800 years. Exact chronological 
relationships have not yet been established and our dates are 
therefore expressed in broad tentative terms. 

EARLY CHAVIN, 1,200-1,000 B.C. 

7. Relief showing figure of man in profile holding trophy head 
in right hand. Rhyolite porphyry, IS'/b x leVj x47g". Olayan, 
Mosna Valley. EG 

8. Fragment (top) of stella showing profile heads of anthropo- 
morphic feline on each side. Rhyolite porphyry, le'/g x 1 1 Yj x 
5%". Runtu, Mosna Valley. MM 

9. Tenoned head of serpent with feline fangs. Rhyolite porphy- 
ry, 21 x 14x11 1/2". Chavin de Huantar. ML 

10. Rubbing of stone relief representing a bat, 19'/2x2iy2". 
Chavin de Huantar. AMNH 

11. Rubbing of stone relief representing an eagle. IQ^xlO'/a". 
Chavin de Huantar. AMNH 

MIDDLE CHAVIN, 1,000-700 B.C. 

12. Rubbing of stone relief representing an anthropomorphic 
feline with serpent tresses holding fish (?) and spondylus 
shell in hands. 2078x22%". Chavin de Huantar. AMNH 

13. Rubbing of stone frieze of mythical eagles and falcons. 
20x192". Chavin de Huantar. AMNH 

14. Rubbing of relief on stone column representing an anthro- 
pomorphic falcon. 8972x74%". Chavin de Huantar. AMNH 

15. Rubbing of relief on stone column, representing an anthro- 
pomorphic eagle. 89'/2x74%". Chavin de Huantar. AMNH 

"16. Relief fragment showing head of mythical falcon. Rhyolite 
porphyry, 16'/2X 1 1 ys ^5% ". Runty, Mosna Valley. MM 

17. Relief fragment showing head of mythical eagle. Ryolite 
porphyry, 21 74 x 14y2x6V4". Chavin de Huantar. MM 

18. Relief fragment showing foot and breast of mythical bird 
or jaguar. Rhyolite porphyry, 12y8 x 17% x 5%". Chavin de 
Huantar. MM 



■ illustrated 



16 



CHAVIN MINOR ARTS 



*19. 



20. 



21. 



Sculpture in round of jaguar. Limestone, 24%x34y2x25y2". 
Pacopampa. ML 

Mortar and pestle. Andesite porphyry, mortar, S'/s" h., 4%" 
diameter, in the form of a mythical feline-eagle. The pestle, 
4V8" long, bears the head of a serpent. Pacopampa. ML 
Miniature tenoned head of anthropomorphic feline. Rhyolite 
porphyry, 3%" h. Chavin de Huantar. MNA 



LATE CHAVIN, 700-500 B.C. 

22. Fragment of relief showing plumage of mythical bird. 
Slate, 171/2". Chavin de Huantar. MNA 




The selected group of Chavin ceramics and other objects in the 
exhibition is almost all from the north coast valleys of Peru. Most 
are vi/ithout exact provenience and their chronological relation- 
ships are not certain. They are arranged in groups according to 
their probable age and regional substyle. 

EARLY CHAVIN ART, 1,200-1,000 B.C. 

Stirrup spout bottles, provenience unknown, unless other- 
wise indicated. 
23. Gold repousse pendant in the form of a crouching feline. 
3x4", 17 gm. Chongoyape, Lambayeque Valley (?) TMDC 
*24. Bottle with incised feline-eagle. (Note similarity to figure 23, 
except for beak and wing.) Grey ware, 8%" h. Chicama 
Valley (?) FT 

25. Bottle, owl head. Greyware, 81/2" h. Vicus, Piura Valley. DS 

26. Gold head band with repousse feline head. 71/2" diameter, 
13/4" h. HC 

27. Bottle, relief of mythical eagle in profile. Blackware, 8%" h. 
Chicama Valley (?) MAT 

28. Bottle, relief of mythical eagle with wings outspread. Black- 
ware, 9" h. HC 

*29. Bottle, relief of mythical bird head. Brownware with graphite, 
8'/4"h.DS 

30. Single spout bottle with incised abstract symbol. Black- 
ware, gi/g" h. AMNH 

31. Effigy jar in form of standing monkey. Brownware, S'/g" h. 
MNA 

32. Bottle, curvilinear bands in relief. Redware with graphite, 
9'/8"h. DS 

33. Bottle, ribbed stirrup and body. Brownware with yellow 
patina, S'/s" h. DS 

34. Bottle, circles in relief. Black-brownware with graphite, 
71/4" h. ML 

35. Bottle, four feline heads in bold relief. Blackware, 9'/g" h. 
MA 

36. Bottle, textured surface representing plumage (?) Black- 
ware, 9%" h. Chongoyape, Lambayeque Valley. WG 



29 



19 



THE CHAVIN ART OF CHONGOYAPE 

A number of Chavin style gold objects have been found in the 
vicinity of Chongoyape in the Lambayeque Valley. By comparison 
with Highland Chavin stone monuments, most may be assigned to 
the Middle Chavin period. Ceramics found in the same area are 
characterized by the skillful use of surface texture, and are usually 
non-religious in subject matter. The examples listed here are 
tentatively assigned to the same period as the gold. 

MIDDLE CHAVIN, 1,000-700 B.C., CHONGOYAPE 

Stirrup spout bottles of dark grey ware, unless otherwise 
indicated 

37. Gold repousse plaque with standing frontal figure of an 
anthropomorphic feline with serpent tresses. (Compare with 
# 12.) 41/4 x8%", 96 gm. TMDC 

38. Pair of gold ear spools with repousse anthropomorphic 
feline faces. 2%" diameter. ANON 

39. Bottle, seated rat (stirrup spout missing), 7" h. ANON 

40. Bottle, rat seated on muffin form, 8" h. DS 

41. Drum-shaped bottle with stepped fret device in relief. 9%" h. 
DS 

■42. Bottle, owl seated on hemispherical form. 9" h. ANON 

43. Bottle, seated man, hand to mouth, g'/g" h. ANON 

44. Bottle, polished circles against textured background. 8%" h. 
DS 



THE CHAVIN ART OF CUPISNIQUE 

Sr. Raphael Larco gave the name Cupisnique to north coast 
Chavin ceramics after finding sherds of the type in the Cupis- 
nique Quebrada in 1933. Most ceramics of the style have been 
found in the Chicama Valley at sites such as Sausal. This selec- 
tion all dates from the Late Chavin period. 

LATE CHAVIN, 700-500 B.C., CUPISNIQUE 

45. Head jar, old man with wrinkled face. Greyware, 6%" h. 
Chicama Valley. ML 

46. Single spout bottle with mace form. Greyware, lO'/g" h. 
Chicama Valley. ML 

47. Single spout bottle with finely incised and textured surface. 
Dark greyware, 8%" h. Moche Valley (?) MAT 

48. Bottle, puma in high relief against background of rocks and 
cactus. Brownware with traces of cream slip, llYs" h. Pro- 
venience unknown. ANON 

49. Globular bottle with twisted rope form at top and incised 
abstract mythical being. Grey ware, 11" h. Provenience 
unknown. ANON 

50. Bottle, fine line incised motifs. Blackware, lOVa" h. Moche 
Valley (?) MAT 

51 . Stone mace head with four flaring blades with pairs of spikes 
between. Form derived from cactus (?) Rhyolite porphyry, 
traces of red paint, 4% " h. Chicama Valley. ML. 

52. Stone mace head with parallel diagonal blades. 3%" h. 
Chicama Valley. AMNH 



20 




24 



42 



54 



THE CHAVIN ART OF TEMBLADERA 



In recent years a large number of Chavin ceramics and stone 
artifacts fiave appeared on the market whicfi are said to have 
come from the vicinity of Tembladera in the Jequetepeque Valley. 
The style is contemporary with, and very similar to that of, Cupis- 
nique, but tends to be more flamboyant with greater emphasis on 
religious subjects. This might be explained by its close proximity 
to the important Chavin ceremonial center at Kuntur Wasi (La 
Copa) higher up in the Jequetepeque Valley. Evidently, there is 
an absence of ground water at the burial sites since paints applied 
after firing are often well preserved. (They were also used on 
Cupisnique and other Chavin pottery styles, but seldom survive.) 

LATE CHAVIN, 700-500 B.C., TEMBLADERA 

53. Head cup, anthropomorphic feline face. Blackware, traces 
of red paint, 43/3" h. AC 

*54. Bottle, kneeling hunchback, serpent incised on back. Black- 
ware, well preserved red and white paint, 10" h. ANON 

55. Effigy jar, seated hunchback. Blackware with traces of red 
paint, 6" h. RA 

56. Single spout bottle with flange in the form of a mythical fish. 
Dark brownware, traces of red and white paint, 11" h. DS 

57. Bottle, mythical serpent with feline head. Dark brownware, 
wel preserved red, orange and white paint. ANON 

58. Bottle, seated feline. Grey brown ware, traces of red paint, 
101/2" h. ANON 

59. Bottle, modeled eagle forming part of its spout. Incised 
anthropomorphic feline heads on body of vessel. Dark 
brownware, traces of red paint, 1 1 '/g " h. ANON 

60. Bottle, an acrobat lying on his stomach, his feet touching 
the back of his head. Dark greyware, 9'^" h. ANON 

61. Three clay whistles, each with two stops giving them three 
distinct tones. Greyware with traces of paint. DS 

A. Human figure form, 2%" long. 

B. Human head form, is/g" long. 

C. Human leg form, 1 s/g" long. 

62. Whistle in form of woman with holes at breasts serving as 
stops, Greyware, traces of paint, 3" h. ANON 

63. Cylinder seal and two clay stamps. Brownware. Such stamps 
are rare in ancient Peru, and Tembladera is one of the few 
sites at which they have been found (see #5). ANON 

A. Cylinder, when rolled forms band of feline heads alter- 
nating in direction. 

B. Stamp, anthropomorphic feline head with tripart head- 
dress. 

C. Stamp, anthropomorphic feline head surrounded by 
scroll elements. 

64. Miniature jar, form of a rhinoceros beetle. Brownware, 
2'/4"h. x5y4" long. ANON. 

65. Miniature stone cup, incised anthropomorphic feline heads 
with tripart headdresses. Tan, red paint in the incisions, 
type of soapstone, 1 Vi " h. DS 

66. Shallow stone bowl, flaring sides. Low relief on exterior 
consisting of frontal face and strap work. Rose tinted, 
type of soapstone, 13/4" h.,5'/2" diameter. DS 



67. Miniature stone double cup, relief of twined fret with anthro- 
pomorphic feline heads in centers. Type of soapstone, 
lYs" h. ANON 

68. Three miniature stone vessels. Type of soapstone. DS 

A Bowl, incurved rim, rows of bumps on exterior. Buff, 
1" h. 

B. Bowl, incurved rim. Buff, 1 '/s " h. 

C. Ladle, notched handle, hole in pommel. Pink, 3" long. 

69. Two model ears of corn. DS 

A. Light grey stone, 2^/^' long. 

B. Black stone, 2''/^" long. 

70. Model ear of corn. Dark grey stone, 4%" long. FS 

71. Stone figure seated crosslegged with hands clasped at 
chest. Mottled grey green stone, 2%" h. ANON 

72. Two undecorated stone mortars with flaring sides, each with 
pestle. RA 

A. Grey green andesite porphyry, 8V4" h., 11%" diameter, 
with pestle 9%" long. 

B. Grey green andesite porphyry, 575" h., 9%" diameter, 
with pestle 6/2" long. 




77 



THE ART OF VICUS 



CHAVIN ART IN TRANSITION 

Towards the end of the long Chavin period centralized control of 
the culture waned and Chavin art displayed the strong techno- 
logical and cultural influences of new groups moving into the 
north coast area. This change was particularly evident in ceramics 
which showed a shift to oxidation firing and the use of colored 
clay slips with traditional incised lines. 

LATE CHAVIN TRANSITION, 500-400 B.C. 

73. Stone mortar, straight sides, incised with fine lines rep- 
resenting a frontal human figure and abstract architectural 
(?) elements. The function of the two slotted holes which 
pierce the figure is not known. Andesite porphyry, 1^/^' h., 
9" diameter. MBL 

74. Bottle, kneeling man, hair in cylindrical bun, diagonal face 
marking. Arms incised on body of vessel. Though Chavinoid 
in style, this attractive ceramic shares many features with 
contemporary Paracas art on the south coast while its 
stirrup spout is close in form to those of the first period of 
the Mochica (Moche) Culture. It is difficult to place the piece 
as to its area of origin but it probably dates very late in the 
Chavin period. Finely polished blackware, 7%" h. HYO 

75. Single spout bottle. Red slipped and burnished in zones 
between vertical ribs, 43/3" h. Tembladera. RA 

76. Bottle, incised band of abstract anthropomorphic feline 
heads. Brownware, red and black slip, 10" h. Vicus, Piura 
Valley. HZ 

*77. Effigy bottle, standing man arms raised to sides. Orange- 
ware, incised and slip painted, red-orange and black, 
878" h. Vicus, Piura Valley. HZ 

78. Bottle, root vegetable form, incised, abstract Chavin symbol. 
Brownware, black slip, S'/s" h. Chicama Valley (?). ES 

79. Bottle, incised stylized anthropomorphic heads. Orange- 
ware, cream and black slip, llVs" h. Provenience unknown, 
DS 

80. Single spout effigy bottle, seated man half covered by 
garment. Heavy red and cream slip, S'^" h. Provenience 
unknown. ANON 

81. Bottle, head incised detail one half of face covered by hair- 
lock. Orange-brownware, red and cream slip, g'/s" h. Vicus, 
Piura Valley. DS 

82. Bottle, stylized spondylus shell. Zone burnished blackware, 
71/4" h. Chicama Valley (?) MNA 

The stirrup and spout forms of t/i/s and the following two 
pieces place ttiem at thie very end of the transition period. 

83. Bottle mace head form (see # 52). Light greyware, 73^" h. 
Chicama Valley. ANON 

84. Orangeware bottle, crayfish, painted in red and cream slip, 
81/4" h. Chicama Valley. ANON 

85. Female figure with incised detail. Highly polished yellow 
brownware with black pigment applied to hair, 19%" h. 
Curyacu, Central Coast. MNA 



Six years ago huaqueros encountered ancient burials in the upper 
Piura Valley near a hill called Cerro Vicus on the hacienda Pabur. 
Their discovery touched off one of the greatest flurries of hua- 
quero activity in recent times. Literally thousands of graves were 
opened and today the vast cemetery lies depleted, looking like a 
World War I battlefield. 

The flood of art materials which appeared on the market as a 
result of this new find has caused great excitement and no little 
confusion among Peruvianists. A bewildering variety of art ob- 
jects is represented with some clear relationships to, and many 
striking differences from, previously known ancient Peruvian art 
styles. Ceramics can now be assigned with some degree of 
certainty to phases within two cultural periods: Classic Vicus, 
and Negative Vicus. Many gold, copper, and stone objects are, 
however, still difficult to place in their proper chronological 
context. 

The owner of the hacienda Pabur, Sr. Domingo Seminario, unable 
to control the activities of the huaqueros, began buying the finest 
of the Vicus materials as soon as they appeared and today has 
the largest and richest collection of the styles in the world 
Almost our entire selection is derived from this source. 



24 



THE CLASSIC VICUS CERAMIC STYLE, 
400 B.C.-100 A.D. 



The Classis Vicus ceramic style is closely related in many ways 
to that of the early periods of the Mochica culture found in the 
Chicama and Moche Valleys some 200 miles to the south. The 
northern varient is, however, superior from both a technical and 
artistic point of view. The range of its subject matter, while over- 
lapping, is far wider and it shows a greater preference for sculp- 
tural rather than painted pottery. The historical relationship 
between the two centers is as yet not understood and we know 
litlte about the early periods in the extensive valleys which lie 
between them. The dates and phase designations used in our 
discussion here are, therefore, tentative. The Classic Vicus cul- 
ture may prove to be the parent of Mochica. 



CLASSIC VICUS CERAMICS, CHAVINOID PHASE, 
400-300 B.C. 

The early phase of Classic Vicus ceramics is strongly Chavinoid 
and may well be at least partly contemporary with the final transi- 
tional period. Chavin ceramics are found at Vicus (Nos. 25, 76, 77, 
79, and 81) and a nearby site called Morropon. The Chavinoid 
phase style is characterized by strongly modeled forms and fine 
line incised detail. A preference is shown for black or greyware, 
but some mauve and orangewares decorated with cream slip as 
well as incising, do occur. 

Stirrup spout bottles, unless otherwise indicated 
*86 Seated man, powerfully modeled face, feline fangs. A proto- 
type of the Mochica god "Ai Apec". Dark greyware, incised 
detail, IVs" h. DS 

87. Seated figure, head of vampire bat (?) In Mochica and later 
context this being is identified as a sky god. (See Nos. 105 
and 292.) Dark greyware, incised detail, 7y2" h. DS 

88. Single spout bottle with strap handle. Two serpents in relief, 
heads modeled in strong planes suggesting Chavin stone 
work. Dark greyware, incised detail, 6Ys" h. DS 

89. Feline figure in high relief. (Compare with # 48.) Blackware, 
incised detail, 7%" h. DS 

90. Seated feline eating snake. Orangeware, cream slip. (Com- 
pare with #89.) 7'/2" h.DS 

91. Seated man holding a jar on his shoulder, (a common sub- 
ject in this period). The split level hairdo, applied pupils for 
the eyes, and surface textured by punctating are all Chavin 
traits. Mauveware, incised and cream slipped detail, 7%" h. 
DS 

92. Seated man, expressive wrinkled face. Blackware, incised 
detail, 7%" h. DS 

93. Reclining deer. Greyware, 772 " h. DS 

94. Owl. Greyware, incised detail, 8%" h. DS 

95. Seated man, animal skin headdress, cape with geometric 
decor. Blackware, incised detail, 7" h. DS 



25 




96 



120 



86 



CLASSIC VICUS CERAMICS, MATURE PHASE, 
300-100 B.C. 



The term mature is used to indicate the fully developed early 
Vicus style. The virtuosity of Vicus ceramists was no doubt due 
in part to the superior clays they had to v^ork with, but their 
creative genius ranks them among the finest artist craftsmen of 
ancient Peru. 

Stirrup spout bottles 
*96. Kneeling warrior, originally inlayed with stone and shell 
and equipped with miniature copper mace and gold nose 
ornaments. Orangeware, mauve and cream slip, 61/2" h. DS 

97. Kneeling warrior, most of stone and shell inlays as well as 
gold nose ring still in place. It was also equipped with a 
miniature copper mace. Creamware, 8%" h. DS 

98. Seated man, long aquiline face. Orangeware, red and cream 
slip, 75/s" h. DS. 

99. Head of old man with wrinkled face, mustache and pointed 
beard. Creamware, 8Ys" h. DS 

100. Seated fat man. Orangeware, nine square grid incised on 
chest, 75/3" h. DS 

101. Seated man holding lime bottle, strongly modeled face. Buff 
ware, 71/2" h. DS 

102. Man standing atop a platform conducting a human sacrifice. 
(Compare with Mochica II version # 244.) Creamware with 
touches of red slip, some restorations, SYa" h. DS 

103. Fledgling condor. Orangeware, cream slip, 7%" h. DS 

104. Male condor. Creamware, mauve slip, 7%" h. DS 

105. Vampire bat. Orangeware, cream slip, 6%" h. DS 

106. One-half of surface ornamented with conical bosses. Black- 
ware, incised detail, 73/3" h. DS 

107. Frog in coils of snake. Creamware, red slip, y'/j" h. DS 

108. Kneeling llama loaded with bundles of sticks. Creamware, 
red slip, 6'/4" h. DS 

109. Kneeling faun. Creamware, 5%" h. DS 

110. Eared owl. Creamware, red slip, 73/3" h. DS 

111. Hawk standing on eel. Creamware, 872" h. DS 



CLASSIC VICUS CERAMICS, VIRU PHASE, 
100 B.C.-lOO A.D. 

Towards the end of the mature phase, Vicus ceramics began to 
manifest the strong influence of a culture known as Viru (Galli- 
nazo). This group had appeared on the north coast at the close 
of the Chavin period and had been displaced in the Chicama and 
Moche Valleys by the Mochica culture. It was known to have 
continued in the Viru and other Valleys to the south (see Nos. 
191-210), but its movement northward to the Piura Valley had 
not been suspected. While the Viru culture had little effect on 
Mochica art, its ceramic style blended smoothly with that of the 
mature phase of Classic Vicus indicating a peaceful merging of 
the two traditions. 

Ceramics in a pure Viru style are found at Vicus (Nos. 112-116) 
exhibiting their typical simplified modeling and peculiar long taper- 
ing spout and arched tubular handle. Most pieces showing a 
blending of the two styles have this type of spout and handle 
(Nos. 117-123), but some have the traditional stirrup spout of 
Classic Vicus ceramics (Nos. 1 24-1 28). 
Viru type spouts and handles 

112. Owl head on ring based, muffin-shaped vessel. Orange- 
ware, eya" h. DS 

113. Man seated on muffin-shaped vessel. Orangeware, 6y2" h. 
DS 

114. Seated man holding pottery in hands, casque on back. 
Orangeware, 6%" h. DS 

115. Double vessel, standing warrior to front. Creamware, 9y^" 
h. DS 

116. Standing deer. Orangeware with negative decoration (typi- 
cal of Viru), y'/s" h. DS 

Viru type spouts and handles 

1 17. Fox eating mouse. Orangeware, cream slip, SY^" h. DS 

1 18. Kneeling warrior. Orangeware, cream slip, 8" h. DS 

119. Seated man, elaborate headdress, collar of human heads. 
Orangeware, cream slip, 65/3" h. DS 

*120. Macaw seated atop jar. Orangeware, cream slip, SYs" h. DS 

121. Monkey standing on all fours. Creamware, 8'/2 " h. DS 

122. Double vessel, crayfish atop each, seagull on one. Orange 
buffware, 7%"h. DS 

123. Architectural group. Creamware, orange slip, spout missing. 
5%" h. DS 

Stirrup spout bottles 

124. Two wrestlers. Creamware, incised detail, 10%" h. DS 

125. Head, geometric face painting. Orangeware, red slip, 9y8 " h. 
DS 

1 26. Seated man, animal form headdress, geometrically decorated 
tunic. Orangeware, cream slip, T/4" h. DS 

127. Seated man, grotesque monkey face. Creamware, red slip, 
65/8"h. DS 

128. Painted with band of composite bird and feline motifs. 
Creamware, red brown and orange slip, 6'/$ " h. DS 



27 



CLASSIC VICUS AND "FRIAS" GOLD 



An infinite variety of gold nose ornaments and other objects are 
reported to have been found at Vicus and at a site called Frias 
near Ayabaca about 50 miles to the north east in the highlands 
near the Ecuadorian border. No archeologist has yet visited Frias 
and there is an unexplained absence of ceramics and other 
material associated with "Frias gold". Stylistically, there is little 
to distinguish it from that for which there is more reliable Vicus 
provenience. While we cannot rule out the existence of other 
sites, we will treat the gold as one stylistic unit. 
It is extremely difficult to relate Vicus gold and ceramic objects 
stylistically since the two mediums impose quite different limi- 
tations on craftsmen. The only evidence we have to go on are 
actual miniature gold nose ornaments on modeled pottery ( # 97), 
sculptural representations of figures wearing gold ornaments 
(#119) and painted motifs on pottery which appear to relate more 
closely to gold motifs than to the sculptured ones ( # 128). An 
examination of such meagre indications has led to the following 
hypotheses: that the Classic Vicus culture was skilled at fash- 
ioning gold ornaments by soldering together thin sheet gold, 
twisted gold wire and gold granules; and that the Viru culture 
introduced the use of repousse, and bi-metallic (gold and silver 
or electrum) sheets. As with the ceramics, it is assumed that 
there was a considerable blending of the two traditions during 
the Viru phase of the Classic Vicus period. 



CLASSIC VICUS GOLD ORNAMENTS, 400 B.C.-100 A.D. 

Unless otherwise indicated, provenience is reported to be 
Vicus. 

MATURE PHASE (?) 300-100 B.C. 

129. Standing feline, green stone inlay in tail. Soldered con- 
struction, twisted wire detail. 1 x1 72", 9.7 gm. DS 

130. Crouching feline with pendant from mouth. Soldered con- 
struction, twisted wire detail, Frias. %x1%", 12.2 gm. HC 

131. Grotesque mask with pendant from mouth. Soldered con- 
struction gold head, worked and twisted wire detail, Frias. 
15/3x13/4", 26.3 gm.HC 

'132. Female figure with detachable head. Soldered construction, 

Frias. e'/axS'/j". 60 gm. MBL 
133. Six nose ornaments. DS 

A. Bird form attached. Soldered construction, twisted wire 
and gold band detail, iy3x2'/4", 7.5 gm. 

B. Similar but without ornamental detail, 3V4x4%", 20.5 
gm. 

C. Bean-shaped, iy2x3y8", 5.9 gm. 

D. Filigree work, some holes still contain turquoise inlays, 
1 'Ax 13/3", 6.4 gm. 

E. Filigree work, green stone inlay in center, l/s" h., 1%" 
diameter, 6 gm. 

F. Crescent with 21 triangles of fine gold beads on outer 
edge, 10 conical bosses. Soldered construction, 13/8X 
178",5gm. 



VIRU PHASE (?) 100 B.C. -100 A.D. 

Mixture of mature and Viru phase Classic Vicus technical 
traditions. 

134. Plumed feline figure ornamenting handle of throwing stick. 
Bi-metallic plumes and tail. 3Y4" h., 79.85 gm. ES 

135. Crouching feline, turquoise bead inlays in eyes, shoulders 
and hips. Soldered construction, twisted wire detail, loop 
for suspension, 1%x13A", 1 1.5 gm. DS 

136. Nose ornament, feline head, tail, and two birds. Soldered 
cons;ruction, twisted wire detail, I'/sxP^", 3.2 gm. DS 

137. Nose ornament, two grotesque animal heads, three conical 
bosses between. Soldered construction, wire and gold bead 
detail, iy4Xiygx3/4", 7 gm. DS 

(Compare motif with gold bo vl # 142-B) 

138. Repousse cylinder with bird finial, pendant from beak, tur- 
quoise bead eyes. Soldered construction, 2y^" h., 5.15 gm. 
DS 

139. Feline head with circular dangles on ears and brow. Belt or 
headdress ornament. Frias. 472 x5y2", 92 gm. MBL 



28 




132 



VIRU PHASE (?) REPOUSSE GOLD 

140. Five repousse gold nose ornaments imitating Mature Phase 
motifs. DS 

A. Crescent with large and small conical bosses, P/sX 
2%", 3.1 gm. (Compare with # 133-F.) 

B. Pierced work, rampant condors, iyax2%", 10.1 gm. 
(Compare with # 104.) 

C. Repousse cat face, 3%x3ys" , 23.9 gm. 

D. Repousse cat face, eyes were inlaid, 1%x2y8", 5.8 gm. 

E. Half round, rampant repousse feline and 9 round dangles 
in cutout holes, 3x3V8", 7.4 gm. 

141. Six repousse nose ornaments in Viru style tradition. DS 

A. Three birds and two felines, 3% x4", 16.2 gm. 

B. Grotesque face, 3'/2x4%", 1 1.5 gm. 

C. Frontal face with scroll, 2%x3'/2". 7.5 gm. 

D. Rampant felines, 3%x4", 12.4 gm. 

E. Rampant "dragons", 3x4". 10 gm. (Compare with 
painted motif on # 1 28.) 

F. Double-headed centipede, 2x272", 4.25 gm. 

142. Two repousse gold bowls. DS 

A. Four frontal faces, 3ysx578", 82.1 gm. 

B. Scroll repeat of grotesque heads, 2%x4y8", 43 gm. 
(Compare motif with # 137.) 



30 



CLASSIC VICUS COPPER ARTIFACTS, 
400 B.C.-100 A.D. 



CLASSIC VICUS STONE ARTIFACTS, 400 B.C.-lOO A.D. 



143. Seven ceremonial axe heads, listed according to modeled 
decoration on socket. DS 

A. Chavinoid head. Gilded copper, turquoise inlays in eyes 
and ears, 4V8 " long. Chavinoid Phase. 

B. Three ribs (see stone mace # 148 B). Gilded copper, 
4'/8" h. Chavinoid Phase. 

C. Head of warrior. Copper, stone inlaid eyes, 4" long. 
Chavinoid Phase (?) 

D. Figure of seated warrior. Gilded copper, shell inlay in 
headdress, SS/a" long. Mature Phase (?) 

E. Head of bat. Copper, turquoise bead eye inlays, S'/s" 
long. Mature Phase. 

F. Human head. Copper, 4'/4" long. Mature Phase. 

G. Human head. Silver colored metal (electrum ?), 41/2 " 
long. Viru Phase. 

144. Two sculptural mace heads. DS 

A. Bird form mace, tail making short blade. Gilded copper, 
2%x3V8"- Chavinoid Phase (?) 

B. Six projecting serpent heads. Copper, 1%" h. Viru 
Phase (?) 

145. Two flat disc-shaped mace heads. Viru Phase. DS 

(This type also occurs with more typical Classic Vicus 
motifs.) 

A. Disc with four notched flanges. Gilded copper, 3%" 
diameter. 

B. Disc with notched rim, seven cutout stylized serpent 
heads. Gilded copper, s/s" h., 5%" diameter. (Compare 
with painted motif on # 1 27.) 

146. Celt, pommel in form of owl. Copper, green stone inlays, 
31/4" h. Chavinoid Phase (?) DS 

147. Small seated figure holding spondylus shell. Copper casting, 
21/2 " h. Period undetermined. DS 



148. Five mace heads. DS 

A- Four vertical flanges. Andesite porphyry, Sys " diameter. 
Chavinoid Phase. 

B. Horizontal ribs. Andesite porphyry, 2'/2" h. Chavinoid 
Phase. 

C. Five rows of square bosses. Stone, 2%" h. Mature 
Phase (?) 

D. Six projecting round knobs. Andesite porphyry, 1%" h. 
Mature phase (?) 

E. Four profile felines in relief. Soapstone, 3% " h- Viru 
Phase. 

149. Four frontal feline heads. Soapstone, 1 " h. Viru Phase. AC 

150. Stone double pipe whistle, feline head pommel, 1%" h. 
Viru Phase. ANON 

151. Stone double pipe whistle, form of woman carrying olla on 
back. Basalt, lyj" h. Mature Phase. DS 

152. Small stone cylindrical shaft, seated feline holding human 
figure on pommel. Function unknown. Type of soapstone, 
35/8" h Mature Phase. DS 

153. Eight necklaces of restrung gold and stone beads. Assigned 
to the Classic Vicus period on the basis of their similarity 
to Mochica work. DS 

A. Flattened gold spheres and turquoise, SS'^" long, 
160 gm. 

B. Emeralds and gold, 31 " long. 

C. Quartz, carnelian, and gold, 30" long. 

D. Gold, emerald, topaz, amethyst and other stones, 33" 
long. 

E. Topaz, amethyst, and one emerald, 29'/2 " long. 

F. Quartz and gold, 33'/2" long. 
G- Amethyst and gold, 32" long. 
H. Pearls, 36" long. 



31 



THE NEGATIVE VICUS STYLE, 100-700 A.D. 



TRANSITIONAL NEGATIVE VICUS CERAMICS, 
100-200 A.D. 



In 1966 Dr. Hans Disselhoff conducted a brief excavation at Vicus 
in which he encountered burials containing negative decorated 
pottery. Carbon 14 tests of organic materials found associated 
with them yielded dates averaging around 300 A.D. This important 
discovery establishes without question the fact that the negative 
style follows that of the Classic Vicus and is roughly contem- 
porary with the fourth period of Mochica. It does not, however, 
provide a basis for the chronological ordering of the many 
stylistic variations within Negative Vicus pottery. The broad 
period designations proposed here are tentative and need further 
refinement by careful seriation. 



The earliest ceramics of the Negative Vicus Period clearly show 
the influence of the Classic Vicus tradition it displaced. Classic 
subjects are translated into the more primitive negative wares and 
the stirrup spout form is often copied. Only rarely, however, did 
the new ceramists use the fine clays preferred by their predeces- 
sors. 

Orangeware with negative decoration, unless otherwise 

indicated 

154. Fish. Creamware, negative decoration, 8%" h. DS 

155. Seated man, necklace of human heads. (Compare with 
Classic Vicus Viru phase #119) 62/4" h. DS 

156. Seated man, hand to face, 7%" h. DS 

157. Seated woman, braided hair, 672" h. DS 

158. Seagull, 91/4" h. ANON 

159. Two wrestlers (compare with # 124). The subject and stirrup 
spout are an imitation of Classic Vicus. The figures are in the 
Early Negative Vicus style, 1 1 %" h. DS 

160. Crescent-shaped bottle, incised double-headed snake, 
modeled bird. (See # 141 F and # 185.) 8'/4" h. DS 




^^t^ 



172 



32 



THE EARLY NEGATIVE VICUS STYLE, 200-500 A.D. 



THE LATE NEGATIVE VICUS STYLE, 500-700 A.D. 



Ceramics of the Early Negative Vicus period bear some style 
relationships to those of Viru but are much more primitive and 
exhibit far less technical skill. Closer stylistic relationships may 
be found to the north, Vi/ith pottery found in Ecuador and Colum- 
bia. Whatever their cultural ties may have been. Negative Vicus 
ceramics have a persuasive, almost childlike, charm of their own. 
The examples listed are, with few exceptions, of two ceramic 
types. One is a double vessel, one-half bottle, the other, a sculp- 
tural figure. The other is a watermellon-shaped bottle with a 
spout and a bridge-like handle leading to a modeled head or 
figure. Both types have a whistle in the sculptural portion which 
sounds when liquid within the ceramic is sloshed. 

Orangeware with negative and cream slip decoration 

1 61 . Standing male playing drum, S'/g " h. DS 

162. Standing female, hands held on stomach, 73/3" h. DS 

163. Standing male, playing pipes of pan, 91/4 " h. DS 
*164. Standing female, holding child to front, 774" h. DS 

165. Large double-ended drum with handle in the form of anthro- 
pomorphic figure, 1 SYs x 1 22/4 ".ANON 

166. House form, seated figure inside holding bowl, 772 " h- OS 

167. Bottle, head of man wearing large nose ornament, S'/j" h. 
AMNH 

1 68. Bottle, head of grotesque bird, dYg " h. DS 

169. Bird effigy bottle, condor (?)8'/2" h- DS 

170. Bird effigy bottle, long slim neck and body, cream slip only. 
10" h. GG 

1 71 . Bird effigy bottle, flaring disc around eye, 7yg" h. AMNH 
'172. Female effigy, large heart-shaped head, 7'/2" h. RA 



In the late period of the Negative Vicus style the same ceramic 
forms continued but tended to become smaller, better executed, 
and more elaborate in their negative and cream slip decoration. 
Spouts become longer and more tapered until at the end of the 
period the double spout bottle form became a direct precedent 
for those of the later North Coast Wari, Lambayeque, Chimu, and 
Inca wares. ( # 183.) 

173. Effigy bottle, swimmer with arms on skin float, 5Yb" h. DS 

174. Male effigy, standing figure with hands on chest. Heart- 
shaped head, 11 3/4" h. GG 

1 75. Animal effigy bottle, human head, 6" h. DS 

1 76. Standing deer atop drum shape, 9% " h. DS 

1 77. Standing feline atop drum shape, 8%" h. DS 

178. Monkey atop drum shape, 7'/2" h. DS 

1 79. Man held by double-headed animal, 7" h. DS 

1 80. Rat atop fruit form, eVs " h. DS 

181. Rectangular vessel with bottle-shaped spout and seated 
figure with large nose ornament, 7%" h. DS 

*182. Seatedmonkey, eyg" h. DS 

183. Standing figure with flanged headdress, prominent teeth 
Wari influence (?),6'/2"h.DS 



33 



NEGATIVE VICUS GOLD, 100-500 A.D. 



NEGATIVE VICUS STYLE COPPER OBJECTS 



The metalurgical skills of the Negative Vicus peoples were not 
as advanced as their predecessors'. They did, however, master 
the technique of combining gold with electrum to form heavy 
bi-metalllc nose ornaments. ( # 184) The wearing of this type of 
ornament is shown in ceramic # 107 where the bi-metallic division 
is clearly indicated. Ceramic # 181 shows a late period version 
of the same kind of nose ornament. The dangles of # 184-A may 
indicate that it belongs in the transition period, but no assignment 
to period is attempted for the other pieces. 
184. Eleven nose ornaments. DS 

A. Gold half-moon with 5 holes on the points for dangles, 
2y4x3%",41.2gm. 

B. Gold circular piece with two scrolls, 2x2'^", 19.1 gm. 

C. Gold crescent with two beads on wire. 2%"x3", 17 gm. 

D. Gold half-moon with projecting nose pincer, 2x4'/8". 
19.5 gm. 

E. Gold squared crescent, 4^/8 x 7", 67.05 gm. 

F. Gold crescent, band of electrum, 372 x^ys ". 59.25 gm. 

G. Crescent, alternating bands of gold and electrum, 3x 
33/3", 41.1 gm. 

H. Gold crescent, harlequin of gold and electrum, 2%x 

3'/4",49.8gm. 
I. Crescent, half gold, half electrum, 2^/2y-'ifl/z" , 17.2 gm. 
J. Half-round, half gold, half electrum, 21/2 '<3y8". 14 gm. 
L Gold crescent, 23/8x2=4", 42 gm. 



Negative Vicus period copper work appears to have been exe- 
cuted with considerably less skill than that of the Classic Vicus 
period. Most of the selected objects probably belong to the 
Transitional period (100-200 A.D.). 

185. Disc-shaped mace with incised double-headed serpent. 
(Compare with #160.) Gilded copper, 1/2" h., 43/g" diameter. 
DS 

186. Plaque with incised fanciful animals. Gilded copper, 9%" 
diameter. DS 

187. Chopper-like knife with stylized head on handle. Copper, 
4'/8"h. DS 

188. Celt with abstract form of feline on pommel. Copper, shell, 
and stone inlays, 6yg" long. DS 

189. Celt with form of feline on pommel. (Compare with # 177.) 
Copper, 878 " long. DS 



^m 





164 



182 



NEGATIVE VICUS STYLE STONE 

190. Small stone figure, probably from the Late Negative Vicus 
period. Basalt, 3" h. EN 



35 



THE EARLY HISTORY 

OF THE NORTH COAST OF PERU 



Thanks mainly to the research and publications of Rafael Larco 
Hoyle, the chronological sequence of ancient cultures on the 
north coast is well understood. He has shown that a group called 
Salinar moved into the area at the close of the Cupisnique 
(Coastal Chavin) period and that it was soon supplanted by the 
Viru (Gallinazo) culture. The Mochica (Moche) people then oc- 
cupied the Chicama and Moche Valleys, but the Viru style con- 
tinued to dominate the nearby Viru Valley. We have already 
witnessed the impact of the Viru culture on the late phase of 
Classic Vicus art on the far north coast. The ceramics listed 
below demonstrate the Inter-mixing of styles which took place in 
the transition period between Chavin and Mochica times, and the 
Viru style, in the valley for which it is named. 




36 



200 



THE MINGLING OF STYLES, 400-200 B.C. 
CHAVIN - SALINAR - VIRU 

191. Bottle form of frog. Cream ware with red-orange slip 
decoration, ?■%" h. MNA 

The stirrup spout form is strongly Chiavinoid. the technology 
Is Salinar. 

192. Bottle in form of seated man. Creamware, incised lines and 
orange slip. (Style mixture similar to # 191.) 6%" h. SD 
Headdress form is also found in Chavinoid phase of Classic 
Vicus. 

193. Cup, owl head, Orangeware, 3%" h. Salinar. SD 

194. Bottle in form of parrot. Buff ware, red and cream slip, 
Syg" h. Salinar, Viru influence. GO 

195. Bottle, man lying on mat. Cream ware with orange slip, 
4%" h. Salinar style with Viru influenced spout and handle. 
ANON 

196. Bottle, kneeling warrior. Orangeware, Mochica I type stirrup 
spout, 83/4" h. SD 



THE VIRU CERAMIC STYLE, 300 B.C.-100 A.D. 

/terns are arranged in chronological order. Unless otherwise 
noted, they have typical Viru tapered spouts and arched 
tubular handles. 

197. Bird effigy. Creamware, red slip on eye, nose only, 4yg" h. 
Salinar influence. MAT 

198. Man seated atop muffin-shaped bottle. Creamware, traces 
of red slip, &/a" h. Salinar influence. MAT 

199. Bowl, orangeware, negative decoration, 1 %" h., 6" diameter. 
MAT 

*200, Double vessel, one-half bottle form; other house form with 
4 human heads. Orangeware, negative decoration, 6'/g" h. 
GO 

201. Crescent form bottle. Warrior head and arms one end. 
Orangeware, negative decoration, 77g" h. ML 

202. Bowl on stand. Human face in relief. Orangeware, traces of 
cream slip, 5%" h. GG 

203. Standing male effigy bottle, spout at back. Orangeware, 
16%" h. ML 

204. Feline figure. Orangeware, negative decoration, 7" h. GG 

205. Feline figure. Orangeware, 87g" h. ML 

206. Seated man. Orangeware, 8%" h. MBL 

207. Figure playing drum made of human skin. Creamware, 
orange slip, 71/2" h. ANON 

208. Effigy bottle, standing figure holding bowl to front. Orange- 
ware, cream slip, 7%" h. Santa Valley. AMNH 



37 



THE RECUAY CULTURE, 300 B.C.-700 A.D. 



Another culture which exerted a formative influence on the early 
phases of the Mochica style was Recuay, named after a town In 
the highland valley called the Callijon de Huaylas where its 
ceramics were first found. The Recuay style is encountered over 
an extremely wide area, including the coastal valleys from the 
Viru to the Casma and inland to the Maranon. Its center appears 
to have been the Santa river drainage (which includes the 
Callijon) but little is known of its history and stylistic develop- 
ment. 




221 (above) 



THE RECUAY CERAMIC STYLE, 300 B.C.-700 A.D. 



RECUAY STONE SCULPTURE, 300 B.C.-700 A.D. 



The following Recuay ceramics are creamwares strikingly 
decorated with negative painted designs and orange slip, 
unless otherwise noted. The sculptural forms are simplified 
and highly stylized. Pieces are arranged in what may be 
their approximate chronological order without indicating 
periods. 

209. Bottle with Chavlnoid stirrup spout. Band of spider motifs, 
animal figures above, 7'/2 " h. Viru Valley (?) WG 

210. Effigy bottle. Cream ware with red and orange slip, negative 
black, zone decoration, 6%" h. ANON 

211. Bowl, serpents in relief. 272" h., 4%" diameter. RA 

212. Three spoons. RA 

A. Bird pommel, 5" h. 

B. Two animal head pommel, 5V2" h. 

C. Animal head pommel, 5%" h. 

213. Pair, figures holding jars to front. Orangeware, cream slip 
and negative decoration. Viru Valley. RA 

A. 6%" h. 

B. 6%" h. 

214. Seated figure, surrounded by seven smaller figures on top 
of vessel. All hold cups. S'A" h. DS 

215. Seated warrior (one leg missing). 10" h. Maranon Valley. 
MNA 

'216. Standing warrior with elaborate owl mask headdress, llama 
at his side, 131/2" h. ANON 

217. Llama with condor seated on head, 41/2" h. MA 

218. Effigy bottle, panels of serpent motifs, SYs" h. ANON 

219. Blackware effigy bottle, 5" h. ANON 

220. Flanged bottle, human head and two house forms on top, 
77/3" h. DS 

*221. Elaborate house form, seated warrior on flat roof with four 
smaller figures holding cups, three similar figures on floor 
below. Negative panels on alternating orange and white 
ground, 102/4" h. FT 

'222. Deer effigy bottle. Thin orangeware, white slip and negative 
decor, 81/4" h. DS 

223. Effigy jar, vertical flanges at sides. Orangeware. cream 
slip and negative decor, lO'^" h. MAT 

224. Feline effigy jar, 61/5" h. JP 

225. Flaring rim effigy bottle, clams on side, modeled heads, 
es/a" h. GG 

226. Seated figure holding knife and trophy head (feline teeth 
not Chavin but Wari influence), S^a" h. MNA 

227. Seated figure. Headdress, orange slip on cream face, black 
negative on orange. 8yg" h. ANON 

228. Bowl, creamware, negative decor exterior, orange slip 
Interior. 35/5" h. RA Transitional with Cjamarca style. 

229. Effigy jar. Seated man playing flute. Orangeware, black and 
mauve slip. ANON 



The highland stone temples of the Recuay culture were orna- 
mented with sculptured tenoned heads, high reliefs, and free- 
standing figure sculpture. In Post-Wari times, this practice con- 
tinued, though the carvings are more primitive. The late style is 
called Huaylas. The dividing line betwesn the two styles is 
difficult to define. 

230. Tenoned head, square snouted plumed puma (plumes in 
serpent form). Rhyolite porphyry, 10x8%xl8%". Pallasca, 
a site in the upper northern reaches of the Santa Valley 
drainage. ML 

231. Pair, felines in high relief within arched borders. Rhyolite 
porphyry. Callijon de Huaylas. MNA 

A. Facing right, 16x20'/2x7y2". 

B. Facing left, 16x20'/2X 10/2". 

232. Seated warrior, holding broad necklace with pendant trophy 
head. Rhyolite porphyry, 20%" h. MM 



39 



THE MOCHICA CULTURE, 200 B.C.-700 A.D. 



Mochica ceramics are perhaps the best known art of ancient 
Peru- The sensitive realism of their modeled subjects and the 
animation and expressiveness of their painted scenes have often 
been noted. The superlative examples shown in this exhibition 
can only enhance the style's reputation as one of the greatest 
ceramic traditions the world has ever seen. 

Rafael Larco published detailed studies of the Mochica ceramic 
style in which he defined five periods. The first three appear to 
have been rather short evolutionary phases, while the fourth was 
a long period of maturity and the fifth a period of gradual decline. 
With the discovery of the Classic Vicus style, it became apparent 
that the origin of the Mochica culture could not be explained in 
terms of developments in the Chicama and Moche Valleys alone. 
It must have been strongly influenced by its northern counterpart, 
and did not assume artistic leadership of the joint tradition until 
its third period- 

All Mochica ceramics listed are stirrup spout bottles unless 
otherwise indicated 



THE MOCHICA I CERAMIC STYLE, 200-50 B.C. 

Ceramics of this period were simple and monumental with little 
of the attention to detail which characterized the Mature Classic 
Vicus style (compare Nos. 108 and 236). 

Stirrup spout bottles with thickened spout lips as in classic 

vicus ceramics 

233. Band of red and cream scroll motifs. Orangeware, 6" h. 
MNA 

234. Painted octopus. Red, cream slip ground, BYa" h. MAT 

235. Architectural complex. Red, orange ground, 7%" h. MNA 

236. Frog. Orangeware, red slip spots, 4%" h. MNA 

'237. Llama with saddle bags. Red, cream slip ground, T'/j" h. GG 




40 



THE MOCHICA II CERAMIC STYLE, 50-0 B.C. 

The trend towards realism continues. Ceramics were mold made. 
Spout lips are slightly thickened. The period was short and Nos 
139 and 141 are transistional to period III. 

238. Relief of Recuay type feline heads. Blackware, 91/4" h. MA 

239. Seated woman, child at side with box drum (?). Dark grey- 
ware, 6"h. MNA 

"240. Seated bound prisoner. Traces of cream and black, brown 
ground, 93/8" h. SD 

241. Painted lizzards and algarobo beans. Cream, red ground, 
61/2" h. GO 

242. Seated man, foot amputated, forehead ornament missing. 
Cream and red, orange ground, 1 1%" h. ML 

243. Head with bird on top. Original from which mold sections 
were made. Orangeware, 1^/2" h. DS 

244. Mochica god Ai Apec holding knife and trophy head. (Spout 
replaced.) (Compare with Classic Vicus # 102.) Red, cream 
ground, 9%" h. FT 




240 



41 




(detail no, 248) 



THE MOCHICA III CERAMIC STYLE, 0-200 A.D. 

In the third period Mochica ceramic art reached technical and 
artistic maturity. The cameo-like perfection of its finest wares was 
never to be surpassed. A greater range of colored slips were 
employed. Spouts had a characteristic flaring rim and were some- 
times concave in profile. 

MOCHICA III PAINTED AND RELIEF WARES 

'245. Bottle, half red on cream, half cream on red, painted con- 
centric circles, TV's" h. RA 

246. Abstract bird motifs. Red, white ground, 7%" h. GG 

247. Chavinoid, broad line incised bird. Cream incisions on 
orange ground, 9" h. MAT 

248. Chavinoid, broad line incised feline mask, punctated back- 
ground. Band of fish demons. Red incisions on orange 
ground. Band of fish, red on cream, SVa" h. MNA 

249. Low ovoid form with 5 round bosses. Deep orange with 
lighter orange spout, 8" h. EN 

MOCHICA III MODELED WARES 



Orangeware with cream slip unless otherwise indicated 

'250. Seated man, incised face markings, striped shirt. S'^" h. 

MAT 

*251. Duck, incised wing detail. 5" h. ML 

252. Man and woman making corn beer ("Chicha"). 4%" h. MBL 

253. Standing woman holding bowl (no spout). S'/s" h. SD 

254. Jar, Owl holding mouse in beak. 1275" h. GG 

255. Jar, Warrior holding drum. IS'/s" h. SD 

256. Ocelot. 878" h. MNA 

257. Seated man, large ear ornaments (see No. 301). S'/s" h. SD 

258. Portrait head. 11" h. WG 

259. Seated man, beans painted in black on face. 1 1 " h. WG 

260. Kneeling warrior (headdress restored). 972" h. GG 

MOCHICA III BLACKWARES 

Highly polished black wares were made in all Mochica periods 
but they enjoyed their greatest popularity in Period III. The 
examples below were selected for comparison with Nos. 256- 

260. Because of their confusion with Chimu black wares, missing 
blackware spouts were sometimes replaced with spouts of that 
later period (Nos. 263, 265). 

261. Feline. 8% " h. SD 

262. Seated warrior, incised detail, some shell inlays intact. 
Spout missing. (Early Period IV). 101/2" h. MNA 

263. Portrait head, spout replaced. 10%" h. SD 

264. Seated grotesque figure. 91/2" h. MNA 

265. Standing warrior, owl mask. Spout replaced. 10" h. (head- 
dress missing). SD 



42 




245 



251 



250 



43 



THE MOCHICA IV CERAMIC STYLE, 200-500 A.D. 




282 



During the fourth period, the Mochica extended their domain 
northward to the Jequetepeque Valley and southward to the 
Napena welding over 200 miles of the North Coast into a vigorous 
political and social unit. The terms, early, middle, and late are 
used to indicate the portion of the long period to which ceramics 
belong. 

MOCHICA IV PAINTED WARES 

Red on cream slip ground 

266. Diamond-shaped abstract heads (Early). lO'/s" h. MNA 

267. Battle scene (Early). Q'/g" h. ANON 

268. Deer hunt (Early). Red on cream ground, 1 1 '/j" h. AICG 

269. Bowl, combat of sea demons (Early). 775" h., 15" diameter. 
MAT 

270. Snail gatherers in the mountains (Middle). lOYs" h. MNA 

271. Of-fering of conch shells to chieftain (Middle). HYb" h. ML 

272. Procession of warriors and military ritual scenes (Late). 
21'/g"h. ML 

273. Deer hunt (Late - transition to Period V). 12'/2" h. MNA 

MOCHICA IV MODELED WARES 

274. Jar, four demon faces in relief (Early). Blackware, 13'/2" h. 
ES 

275. Jar. Bird form (Early), Orangeware, cream paint, 13%" h. ML 

276. Pair jars, bound prisoners (Middle). Red and cream, 13%" h. 
GG 

277. Kneeling drummer (Middle). Cream and orange, 11%" h. GG 

278. Portrait jar, open mouth, (Early). Cream and orange, 7" h. 
MNA 

279. Portrait jar, tatooed lip (Early). Cream, light orange, red, 
8" h. ML 

280. Portrait, 2 bird-skin headdress (Middle). Brown and cream, 
121/2" h. ML 

281. Portrait, one-eyed personage (Middle). Red and cream, 
1 1 3/8 "h. AICG 

*282. Portrait, fat man (Late). Orange with red lines, ^^%" h. MA 

283. Figure, seated blind man, hand to mouth (Early). Cream, 
orange, and red, 10%" h. MNA 

284. Head, blind man, arms painted on vessel (Middle). Orange, 
cream and red, 10%" h. ANON 

285. Head of dignitary, arms painted on vessel (Middle). Orange, 
cream and red, 10'^" h. MNA 

286. Anthropomorphic peanut (Man playing flute) (Early). Orange, 
cream, and deep red, 8/2" h. TG 

287. Man with pouches under eyes (Early). Orange, 9Ys" h. GG 

288. Fox (spout missing) (Middle). Red and cream, 6%" h. RA 

289. Two fox cubs playing (Middle). Orange, red, and cream, 
6%" h. RA 

290. Seagull, (Middle). Brown and cream, 7%" h. FT 

291 . Seated monkey (Late). Orange and cream, 8% " h. MBL 

292. Seated bat god (compare with Classic Vicus version # 87). 
(Early). Orange and cream, 8%" h, MNA 



44 



THE MOCHICA V CERAMiC STYLE, 500-700 A.D. 

The last period of the Mochica culture was one of gradual decline 
as it experienced the ever increasing pressure of the agressive 
highland Wari people which finally brought about its collapse 
around 700 A.D. Both modeled and painted pottery were often 
executed in a rather perfunctory manner. Painted ceramics in 
particular express a kind of nervous tension which must have 
been characteristic of the times. The surfaces of vassels were 
crowded with motifs and space fillers. 

Number 294 of this exhibition is a most extraordinary masterpiece 
of the Mochica V period. Literally hundreds of animated figures 
are crowded upon the bottles' surface, acting out an elaborate 
ritual scene evidently representing offerings being brought to the 
warrior king. It is as if by their intensity they sought to stave off 
their impending doom. The work is an eloquent testimony of the 
tenacious vitality of a long and glorious tradition. 

MOCHICA V CERAMICS 

293. Painted, ritual scene above, warriors in combat below. 

Centipedes on stirrup and spout. Cream and orange, 1 1 ^l^" h, 

MNA 
*234. Painted, elaborate ritual scene, offerings to the king. Cream 

and orange, 1 1 Va " h. GG 
235. Painted, harlequin fashion. Ai Apec crab demon. Cream and 

brown, 7" h. RA 
296. Bivalve shell fish. Cream and brown, 8" h. SD 
237. Abstract head of eagle demo.n. Cream and brown, gyg" h. 

MAT 

298. Head jar, anthropomorphic condor. Cream and orange, 
97g"h. MBL 

299. Portrait jar. Cream and orange, 5" h. Batan Grande, Lam- 
bayequa Valley. HZ 

MOCHICA GOLD 

300. Pectoral, human face with vestigial body, flanked by sky 
pumas. 1 1 X 1 1 '/2"- III Purpur, Viru Valley. ML 

*301 . Pair ear spools, stone and shell inlays and 8 radiating lizzard 
forms. Z^/^" h., 3" diameter. III Purpur, Viru Valley. ML 

302. Plain gold bowl. 23/4" h., SS/s" diameter, 90.1 gm. III. EC 

303. Frog (?) Soldered construction. 274" h., 37 gm. III. GG 



304. Necklace, 9 ears of corn, 9 flattened ovoid beads with 
relief of warrior killing fox. 36" long. IV. EC 

305. Single bead from necklace similar to# 304, composite deity 
symbol. Human face and two profile puma heads. 872" h., 
5" diameter, 77.2 gm. IV. GG 

306. Pectoral or headdress ornament, relief of elaborately dressed 
personage playing pipes of pan, flanked by trumpeters. 
lO'/zxlsys'MV. GG 

307. Plaque, 2 priest figures. 3'/2"x4y4", 18,8 gm. V. TMDC 

MISCELLANEOUS MOCHICA ART 

*308. Silver head jar of Ai Apec with gold overlaid on teeth and 
eyes of serpent head ear ornaments, green stone eye inlays, 
IV, eye" h, IV, TG 

"309, Copper face mask, 7%" h, V, MBL 

310, Stone head cup, gold and turquoise eyes, gold clamps, 
272" h. III, HC 

311, Ceremonial wooden digging stick, male figure on pommel, 
inlays, 72" long. III. MNA 

312, Ceremonial wooden digging stick, jaguar crouching on 
corpse pommel. 54" long, pommel 7". IV. ANON 

313, Wooden lime bottle in the form of a seated prisoner, bound 
with serpent cord, 4% " h, IV. ML 



45 





294 




Detail from catalogue no. 294 (illustrated opposite) 



47 




301 




308 



48 



THE PARACAS CULTURE, 1,100-200 B.C. 



CHAVINOID PARACAS CERAMICS, 1,100-700 B.C. 



The term Paracas is used to cover a very long and complex inter- 
play of cultural traditions that took place on the south coast of 
Peru during most of the first millennium B.C. Archeological infor- 
mation is spotty and chronological relationships between regional 
styles as well as dating are a matter of some speculation. The 
general trends of cultural development are known, however, and 
the periods indicated place objects in their relative positions in 
time. Numbered phase designations published by Menzel, Rowe 
and Dawson are correlated with these periods on the chronology 
chart. Like Tembladera ceramics, those of Paracas styles gener- 
ally have well preserved paints applied after firing. Potteries 
have incised designs and the typical form is a double spout bottle 
with one spout non-functional and in the form of a modeled head. 
Exceptions are noted. 




309 



The Paracas culture began with a period of strong Chavin 
influence during which changing stylistic trends in the north were 
reflected. The first two examples are negative wares which may 
represent the local pre-Chavin pottery tradition. They are curi- 
ously related to early Columbian and Ecuadorian ceramic styles. 

314. Double spout bottle, loop handle between. Orange ware, 
negative decoration. 8%" h. Excavated at Paracas by Engel. 
lAA 

315. Cup. Orangeware, negative decoration. A^f," h. Excavated 
at Paracas by Engel. lAA 

316. Stirrup spout bottle with feline mask, incised guilloche on 
sides. Published by Telle as Chavin. Brown, 61/2" h. Pro- 
venience unknown, though similar bottles have been found 
at Callango, lea Valley. MNA 

317. Bowl with modelled monkey on side and rim. (Similar to a 
north highland type found at Pacopampa.) Blackware, 
orange and brown paint, 31/2" h. Huayuri, Santa Cruz Valley. 
HA 

318. Double spout whistle bottle, feline mask to front. Black- 
ware, red, yellow and brown paint, 6%" high. Chiquerillo, 
lea Valley. ANON 

319. Bowl, band of Chavin eye and teeth motifs. Blackware, red 
and cream paint, 2%" h., 4%" diameter. Ocucaje. TMDC 

320. Double spout whistle bottle. Chavinoid face to front. Black- 
ware, red and brown paint, 1^/^" h. Ocucaje, lea Valley. PT 

321. Bowl, fox (?) and vencejo (bird) motifs. Blackware, red and 
brown paint, 3%" h. Ocucaje. MNA 

322. Double spout whistle bottle. Chavinoid feline mask. Black- 
ware, red, brown and tan paint, 1^/2 h. Ocucaje. PT 

323. Pitcher, double-headed serpent motif. Blackware, yellow, 
brown and green paint, sya" h. Ocucaje. PT 

*324. Single spout bottle, modeled feline. Blackware, cream, red 
and tan paint, 1''/^," h. Callango, lea Valley, CS 

325. Double spout bottle, one spout blind in form of human head. 
Bowl base with two human and one feline Chavinoid faces. 
Tanware, white, green and orange paint, 7" h. Callango. 
ANON 

326. Bowl, Chavinoid faces. Blackware, red and cream paint, 
33/3" h. Callango. ANON 



49 



EARLY PARACAS CERAMICS, 700-500 B.C. 



MIDDLE PARACAS CERAMICS, 500-300 B.C. 



By 700 B.C. distinctive regional Paracas styles had developed 
which continued more or less independent from Late Chavin style 
trends in the north. Sites are indicated on the accompanying map. 

327. Human head spout, bowl base with geometric decor. Black- 
ware, traces of red, e'/a " h. Juan Pablo. PT 

328. Bird head spout, feline mask. Blackware, traces of red, 
678 " h. Juan Pablo. PT 

329. Bird head spout, two panels of vencejo (bird) motifs on 
negative spotted ground. Blackware, yellow and orange 
paint, 51/2" h. Juan Pablo. PT 

330. Pair. Bird head spouts, feline masks with border of geo- 
metric decor. Juan Pablo. TMDC 

*331. Bird head spout, feline mask and fox figures. Maize, red- 
brown, black and dark brown, ^^/^ h., eYs" diameter. 
Spouts restored. Excavated at Paracas by Engel. lAA 

332. Modeled feline. Blackware, ochre, red and green paint, 7" h. 
Ocucaje. PT 

333. Two open spouts, feline figure on each side. Blackware, 
traces of red and brown paint, A^/b" h. Ocucaje. DS 

334. Falcon head spout, wings and body below. Blackware, red 
and yellow paint, 7'/8" h Callango. DS 

335. Human head spout. Blackware, orange paint, red and grey 
in incisions, lOyg " h- Callango. GS 

336. Effigy bottle. Blackware, red and cream paint, &/^" h. Cal- 
lango. GS 

337. Effigy bottle. Blackware, red and cream paint, e'/g" h. Cal- 
lango. GS 

338. Negative decorated football-shaped bottle. Blackware, red, 
yellow and brown paint, SYg" h. Callango. GS 

339. Bowl, birds and felines. Blackware, red and yellow paint, 
23/4" h., 83^" diameter. Callango. DS 



Around 500 B.C. a new religion and iconography involving a 
trophy head cult gained dominance at Ocucaje and other impor- 
tant centers while it appears to have had relatively less effect on 
others that continued to follow their Chavinoid traditions. (Juan 
Pablo, Callango, Palpa Valley.) 

340. Large jar with typical trophy head cult motif. The zig-zag 
expressionistic line of the new style contrasted sharply with 
the orderly Early Paracas renderings. Orangeware, negative 
decoration, 175/3" h. Ocucaje. AR 

341. Cat head spout, body incised. 7" h. Excavated at Paracas by 
Tello. MNA 

342. Modeled fish, killer whale (?) Excavated at Paracas by 
Engel. Blackware, yellow and red paint, 33/3" h. lAA 

*343, Human head spout, winged figure incised. Blackware, 
yellow, red, brown and green paint, 6%" h. Ocucaje. PT 

344. Pair bowls, human and feline figures in interior and on base. 
Callango. GS 

A. Human figure in interior. Red, tan, cream and traces of 
blue paint, 1%" h., 473" diameter. 

B. Feline figure in interior. Red, tan, cream and traces of 
blue paint, 1 %" h., 478" diameter. 

345. Cup, abstract feline figures. Cream, blue and red paint, 
574" h. Callango. GS 

346. Two head spouts open at top, monkeys incised on sides. 
Red, green, cream, blue and tan paint, 673" h- Callango. GS 

347. Bowl, felines on interior, fret design. Blackware, red, yellow 
and green paint, 1%" h., 6%" diameter. Palpa Valley. MRI 

348. Monkey effigy. Blackware, yellow and red paint, 773" h. 
Palpa Valley. ANON 

349. Falcon head, body and wings incised. Blackware, red, 
yellow and green paint, 4%" h. Palpa Valley. ANON 




(detail no. 321) 



50 



LATE PARACAS CERAMICS, 300-200 B.C. 

In the late period Paracas ceramics became more elegant in form 
and line. Subject matter shifted emphasis towards more natural 
motifs. 

350. Large head jar. Blackware, traces of cream and blue paint, 
173/5" h. Ocucaje. AR 

351. Constricted rim jar, falcons. Yellow ground, blue, red-brown 
and cream paint, 43^". Ocucaje. PT 

352. Bowl, abstract serpent. Yellow ground, red and olive paint, 
2" h., 6%" diameter. Ocucaje. FT 

353. Effigy jar. Blackware, dark and pale green, red, orange and 
brown paint, 973" h- (Excavated by Duncan Strong.) Ocu- 
caje. MRI 

354. Pair three-headed frogs. Ocucaje. PT 

A. Blackware, red, brown and green paint, S^/s" long. 

B. Blackware, red, brown and tan paint, 572" long. 

355. Miniature double spout bottle, killer whales. Blackware, tan 
green and red paint, 4y8" h. Excavated by Sawyer, Cordero 
Alto, lea Valley. MRI 

356. Miniature bird effigy bottle. Blackware, traces of red paint, 
273" h. Ocucaje. AR 



357. Whistle in form of seated monkey. Blackware, red and 
yellow paint, 273" h. Ocucaje. AR 

358. Bowl, monkeys. Blackware, cream, orange, light and dark 
green paint, 3%" h. Ocucaje. CS 

359. Bowl, 4 human figures, bird. Blackware, red, yellow, cream, 
green and maroon paint, &^/i" h. Ocucaje. AR 

360. Bowl, long-necked bird. Blackware, cream, red and green 



paint, 3" h., b^^" diameter. Ocucaje. MRI 

361. Effigy bottle, seated figure. Blackware, tan, red and white 
paint, 6" h. Ocucaje. PT 

362. Standing figure, whistle in head band. Blackware, cream 
and red paint, 1 1 Va" h. Ocucaje. AR 

363. Standing figure, lock of human hair. Brownware, cream paint 
on face, 13%" h. Ocucaje. ANON 




324 



331 (beiow) 



343 (above) 



52 




366 



PARACAS TEXTILES, 500-200 B.C. 



The most famous event in the history of Peruvian art and archeol- 
ogy was unquestionably the discovery of the Paracas Necropolis 
cemetery by Tello in 1925. On the sandy slopes of a hill called 
Cerro Colorado overlooking the Paracas bay, he found several 
hundred funeral bundles within the foundation of ancient build- 
ings. When he opened the larger of these bundles, he found the 
body encased by layer after layer of exquisitely embroidered 
mantles and other garments separated by plain cotton shrouds. 
We are privileged to have a number of these fabulous textiles in 
this exhibition. Paracas textiles have also been found at Ocucaje 
and other sites but none match the splendor of the Necropolis 
fabrics. Most date from the Middle and Late Paracas periods but 
the most glorious of the Necropolis are now assigned to the 
following Proto Nazca period. Few have so far been recovered 
that may be attributed to the Early Paracas and Chavinoid periods. 

MIDDLE PARACAS TEXTILES, 500-300 B.C. 

364. Funerary mask. Painted, 9%x9%" plus 13" (uneven warps). 
Ocucaje. CS 

365. Poncho. Interlocking snake motif in warp and weft interlock 
technique. Guilloche border of triple-cloth. 6' 978 "x3' 3%". 
Ocucaje. TMDC 

(Stylistically related to Tello's Pre-Necropolis, "Cavernas" 
culture at Paracas.) 

LATE PARACAS TEXTILES, 300-200 B.C. 

"366. Poncho. Eight feline and human figures with serpent stream- 
ers. Double cloth. 5' 11%"x2' 10%". Paracas Necropolis. 
MNA 

367. Gauze panel. Geometric figures similar to # 366. 5' 11 "x 
2' 578 ".Ocucaje. PT 

368. Mantle section (?) Four geometricized figures. Double cloth, 
5' 13^"x9y2". Ocucaje. TMDC 

369. Mantle, border and bands of geometric feline motifs. Em- 
broidery. 6' 3"x3' 3". Paracas Necropolis. MNA 

370. Funerary mask. Frontal figure with serpent streamers. Paint- 
ed. 2' 9"x 1 ' 4". Ocucaje. AR 

371. Funerary mask. Similar motif, 10%" plus 1' 2y8"xliy8"- PT 

372. Funerary mask. Similar motif, 9yg" plus 2' 6"xr 1^,". CS 

PARACAS NECROPOLIS, PROTO NAZCA PERIOD, 

TEXTILES, 200-100 B.C. 

'373. Mantle. Embroidered border of mythical figures. Stepped 
multi-colored field in interlocking warp and weft technique. 
8' 23/4 "x3' 71/4" (incl. fringe). MNA 

374. Mantle, winged figures. 8' 10"x4' 9%" (incl. fringe). MNA 

375. Mantle border fragment. 10"x4%". WG 

376. Poncho,, cats with birds. 1' 7'/8"xr2". MNA 

■377. Poncho, falcons. 1' 7y8"xr 2". (Compare with ceramic 
# 388.) MNA 




373 



53 



THE PROTO NAZCA PERIOD, 200-100 B.C. 



NECROPOLIS CERAMIC TYPES, 200-100 B.C. 



Towards the end of the Late period, Paracas ceramics and tex- 
tiles began to reflect new religious concepts. An increasing 
number of natural motifs such as birds and animals joined the 
symbols of the trophy head cult. In the Proto Nazca period thai 
followed, this trend culminated in the formation of the Nazca 
culture whose main religious preoccupation was agricultural 
fertility. At the same time, ceramics were undergoing a techno- 
logical revolution evidently stimulated by Necropolis techniques 
but centered in the Rio Grande de Nazca Valley. 



Necropolis ceramics justly famous for their superb technology 
and sophisticated simplicity were found by Tello with Proto 
Nazca period textiles at Cerro Colorado. (Nos. 378-381.) Similar 
types have been found at Ocucaje (Nos. 382-384). 

378. "Grater" bowl with deeply incised fish motif against punc- 
tated ground, Tanware, traces of red paint on rim, 2yg" h., 
9'/2" diameter. MNA 

379. Shallow bowl, polished black interior with finely incised fish, 
lyg" h., 8%" diameter. MNA 

380. Double spout bottle, capped gadrooned form. Orange, 5%" 
h. MNA 

381. Single spout bottle in form of frog. White, 47g" h. MNA 

382. Shallow bowl, black interior with incised fish motif. 278™ h.. 
9" diameter. AR 

383. Double spout bottle, capped gadrooned form. Cream, 5%" 
h. AR 

384. Double spout bottle, slightly gadrooned form, four frogs in 
high relief. Orange, 6y2 " h. AR 




(detail no. 321) 




377 



54 



PROTO NAZCA CERAMICS, 200-100 B.C. 



OTHER PROTO NAZCA ART FORMS, 200-100 B.C. 



Ceramists shifted from the use of resin paints to colored clay 
slips as the medium of decorating pottery. At the close of the 
period ceramics had only to lose their incised lines to become 
Early Nazca in style. 

All examples selected are from Ocucaje. 

385. Necropolis type bottle with two ocelots in relief across top. 
Cream, red spots, 5%" h. AR 

386. Dog effigy bottle. Cream, orange and black, 7" h. CS 

387. Effigy bottle, fisherman. Cream, red and black, 6%" h. CS 
'388. Falcon seated on draw-string bag. (Compare with textile 

# 377). Polychrome, 975" h. AR 

389. Draw-string bag. Red, black and cream, 7%" h. AR 

390. Miniature trophy head. Polychrome, 4" h. AR 

391. Double vessels, each with modeled head, incised and slip 
painted body. Polychrome red ware, 15%" h., 2872" long. 
AR 



392. Fan, two condor motifs woven in black and yellow against 
red ground on structure of canes. Yellow feather fringe, 
handle missing. CS 

393. Gold forehead ornament. 6" h.x ig'A" long. AR 

394. Bone falcon form, throwing stick handle, 3y/' long. AR 

395. Wooden wolf form with inset pyrites mirror. 2yg" h. xAy^" 
long. AR 

396. Obsidian knife blade. A%" long. FS 

*397. Stone vase, incised with two elaborate whiskered deities, 
one holds gold forehead ornament; the other gold plume. 
Porphyry, lOyg" h. MNA 




388 



55 



THE NAZCA CULTURE, 200 B.C.-600 A.D. 



The emergence of the vital new Nazca style reflects the develop- 
ment of a dynamic new religion which unified the peoples of the 
south coast valleys for the first time. Its emphasis was on life 
rather than on death, and Early Nazca art expresses joy with all 
living things and wonder at the generative power of nature. As 
the Nazca culture evolved, ceramics and textile designs reflected 
an increasing emphasis on the mystery of life, expressed in a 
complex pantheon of mythological beings symbolizing spiritual 
powers. 

Nazca ceramics occupy a unique position in world art for their 
unsurpassed mastery of the use of colored slip decoration and 
their subtle relationship of ornamentation and form. As many as 
twelve or fourteen distinct colors may be found on a single 
vessel. For convenience of discussion, Nazca art is divided into 
early, middle and late periods. They are correlated on the chronol- 
ogy chart with nine phases proposed by Lawrence Dawson 
which include one each for the formative Proto Nazca and the 
final Nazca Wari phases. 




402 



56 




(detail no. 397) 




403 




417 



411 



415 




(detail no. 425) 



58 



THE EARLY NAZCA STYLE, 100 B.C.-200 A.D. 



Ceramic, unless otherwise noted 

398. Double spout bottle, capped "Necropolis" form, stars. Poly- 
chrome, 754" h. MNA 

399. Double spout bottle, capped form. Killer whale, beans. 
Polychrome, 61/4" h. ANON 

400. Double spout bottle, bowl based. Polychrome, 8%" h. MNA 

401 . Seated figure wearing turban. Polychrome, 0" h. ANON 
'402. Trophy head jar, sling on turban. Polychrome, 6% " h. PT 
*403. Drum. Complex whiskered diety with fox skin headdress. 

Polychrome, aO'/j" h- ANON 

404. Seated whiskered diety holding pepino (fruit) and Yuca root 
(vegetable). Single spout bottle. Polychrome, 8'/2" h. MNA 

405. Double spout bottle. Whiskered diety, serpent tresses. 
Polychrome, &/^" h. MNA 

406. Large effigy jar, complex whiskered diety. Polychrome. 
285/8" h. HA 

407. Pyro engraved gourd. Winged whiskered diety. (Compare 
with # 410.) Brown with traces of black in incisions, 5%" h. 
MRI 

408. Painted textile fragment, whiskered diety holding corn stalk 
and Yuca root. IQS^xS'A". TMDC 

409. Gold whisker ornament. 101/4x101/2". TMDC 

410. Winged warrior holding trophy head, falcon eye markings. 
(Compare with #406.) Polychrome, 1 1 1/4" h. CS 

*411. Warrior holding club and trophy head, falcon eye markings. 
Polychrome, 11 " h. HA 



412. 



413. 

414. 
*415. 

416. 
*417. 

418. 

419. 

420. 
421. 



422. 
423. 
424. 

425. 

426. 
427. 
428. 
429. 
430. 
431. 



Double headed spout bottle, falcon eye markings. Warrior 
figures on vessel below. Cactus, llama, spider, etc. Poly- 
chrome, black ground, 9y8"h. CS 

Figure carrying large jar with head band. Polychrome, red 
ground, 57/3" h. ANON 

Long-necked bird. Grey, white, red, black. 6%" h. MNA 
Bird. Pink, brown, red, grey, black and white, 7y8" h. MNA 
Four peppers. Orange, cream and black, 5" h. LC 
Fox. Brown, white, black and tan, 61/2" h. MRI 
Plate, condor. Brown, white, red, 2%" h., 8" diameter. MNA 
Plate, two fish. Red ground, cream, black, white, orange, 
2y8" h.,8'/2" diameter. MNA 

Plate, fish. Black, red, white, 2%" h., 8" diameter. CS 
Plate, six fish, heads protruding beyond rim. Interior grey, 
red, orange, cream, black; exterior, stripes, 3%" h., 12%" 
diameter. MNA 

Jar, fish. Grey, white, black, red. b^/^" h. MRI 
Cup. fish. Polychrome fish, red ground, sya" h. EN 
Bowl, 4 crayfish, 4 frogs. Red interior; exterior, white, black, 
orange, grey, red ground, 4y3" h., 9" diameter. RA 
Bowl, birds. Red Interior; exterior, white, maroon, black, 
grey, orange, 5" h., 10%" diamater. RA 
Double spout bottle. Killer whales and birds, 7yg" h. HC 
Pan pipe, vencejos. Black and red, 7'/8" h. MRI 
Pan pipe, dashed line. Black, red. and white, 8%" h. MNA 
Pan pipe. Red. FS 

Whistle, condor. Grey, cream, red, and black, 8'/g" h. ANON 
Whistle, figure. Andesite porphyry, 3" long. ANON 



59 



THE MIDDLE NAZCA STYLE, 200-300 A.D. 

Middle Nazca period ceramics are usually refined in form and 
decorated with great precision. Subject matter tends to be elabor- 
ate and at times is highly abstract ( #443) signaling the final 
break-up of the Early Nazca tradition of simplicity, as religious 
concepts underwent a radical change. 

432. Jar, serpents, spiders in spider webs. Polychrome, red band 
attop, S'/j" h. MNA 

433. Jar, drowning female figures, water background. Poly- 
chrome, white ground, 7" h. RA 

434. Cup, whiskered diety, water background. Polychrome, 3%" 
h.ANON 

435. Effigy jar, vegetable diety. Polychrome, white ground, 6" h. 
CS 

436. Figures with digging sticks. Polychrome, 6" h. MRI 

437. Cup. Elaborate agricultural diety. Polychrome, white ground, 
43/3" h. MNA 

438. Jar. Figures with digging sticks. Red-orange, black, cream 
ground, 5" h. FS 

439. Painted textile, vegetable guardian figures. 2' 8y8"x5' 2y8". 
TMDC 

440. Bowl. Whiskered warrior diety. Red interior, exterior, poly- 
chrome, red ground, 4" h., Q^/^" diameter. MRI 

*441. Double spout bottle. Whiskered warrior diety. Polychrome, 
white ground, 6%" h. MRI 

442. Beaker. Warrior with darts, sling, throwing stick and birds. 
Polychrome, black band near bottom, 9%" h. RA 

443. Bowl. Abstract condor, trophy head in beak. Interior, poly- 
chrome; exterior, red, SYg" h., 8%" diameter. CS 

444. Figure wearing striped garment. Polychrome, 8%" h. ANON 

445. Trophy head beaker, falcon eye markings. White and red, 
51/8" h.ANON 

446. Pair trophy head beakers, triangle check markings. White 
and red. RA 

A. 5y8"h. 

B. S'/a'-h. 



60 




465 



451 



441 



61 





467 B 



469 



467 A 



62 



THE LATE NAZCA STYLE, 300-600 A.D. 



THE NAZCA WARI TRANSITION 600-700 A.D. 



The beginning of the Late Nazca style is marked by a sudden 
elaboration in the rendering of whiskered diety motifs. Face 
whiskers, forehead ornaments and plumes proliferate in detail 
until they almost obscure the basic motif. These elements are 
rendered in sharp, crisp lines interspersed with barb-like trophy 
hair symbols, making the surface of ceramics crackle with energy 
like a Fourth of July sparkler. (Nos. 447-449.) Vegetable guardian 
dieties are elaborate but still recognizable ( # 450). 
The reason for this dramatic change in the Nazca art style is still 
obscure. Some strong outside influence seems to have been 
involved and the highland Ayacucho area is suspected as its 
source. Relationships between the highland cultures and the 
Nazca grew progressively stronger during the period. 

447. Double spout bottle. Standing proliferated figure holding 
serpents in hands. Border of faces. Polychrome, white 
ground, 73/4" h. ANON 

448. Double spout bottle. Proliferated killer whale diety. Red, 
white ground, 4%" h. MNA 

449. Double spout bottle. Proliferated, trophy head cult diety. 
Red, white ground, 4%" h. MNA 

450. Mantle fragment. Border of abstracted warrior dieties hold- 
ing knives and trophy heads. 6' 6yg"xr 9'/8". TMDC 

■451. Double spout bottle. Elaborate feline figure, vegetable and 
fruit symbols attached, border of faces. Polychrome, white 
ground, 8" h. EN 

452. Effigy beaker, arm holds small beaker. Polychrome, 7yg" h. 
MRI 

453. Solid figure, standing male. Tan and red, 12%" h. MNA 

454. Solid figure, standing male. Cream and red, 12%" h. ANON 

455. Solid figure, seated female. Cream and black, traces of red 
and white, 11 34" h, ANON 

456. Solid figure, standing female. Black, tan, 2^/2 h. EN 

457. Effigy beaker, seated figure with carrying cloth. Polychrome, 
85/8" h. MNA 

458. Effigy bottle, seated figure holding trophy head. Polychrome, 
9'/8"h. ANON 

459. Effigy bottle, seated figure holding wounded knee. Poly- 
chrome, S'A" h.ANON 

460. Beaker, representation of mountains with foxes, llamas and 
cactus, running warriors with feathered lances at top. Poly- 
chrome, 83/3" h- RA 

461. Beaker, parallel zigzag lines (Op art?). Red and black on 
white ground, 7^8" h. LC 

462. Double spout bottle. Elaborate ritual scene. ANON 

463. Single spout bottle. Feline with protruding teeth, masked 
priest and other figures. Polychrome, cream ground, e'/j" h. 
RA 

464. Single spout effigy bottle. Man with protruding teeth. Poly- 
chrome, 4%" h.ANON 

'465. Double spout bottle. Feline with protruding teeth. Appears 

to be a late version of the feline vegetable guardian (#562). 

Note attached vegetable symbols. Polychrome, 5" h. MNA 

466. Double spout bottle. Head symbols of toothy feline motif. 

Polychrome, 5ye"h. MNA 



During the final phases of the Late Nazca period a vigorous new 
highland culture with its capitol at Wari near Ayacucho developed 
as the result of the conversion of the local Nazca-related culture 
to the militant religion of the Tiahuanaco people located in the 
southern high-plane around Lake Titicaca. The conversion must 
have been peaceful since Tiahuanaco ceramic types do not occur 
at Wari as they would have, had a conquest been involved. Tia- 
huanaco ceramics were thin and elegant polychrome wares (see 
Nos. 544-547). Wari pottery was simple in form, solidly construct- 
ed, and decorated in a few clear colors with red and orange pre- 
dominant. They soon displaced late Nazca types on the south 
coast. 

*467. Pair of llama effigy jars with typical Early Wari abstracted 
motifs on their sides. Wari. HYO 

A. Orangeware, cream, 4%" h. 

B. Tan, red and orange, 4'/2" h- 

468. Hawk effigy jar with similar motif on back. Polychrome, red 

ground, 7V8" h. Nazca-Wari, Nazca Valley. MNA 
*469. Flask-shaped bottle. Feline head on neck, arms in relief 
holding stylized feline figures. Abstract motif similar to those 
of Nos. 467 and 468 to front. Polychrome, orange ground, 
874" h. South Coast Wari, Ocucaje. WG 

470. Constricted rim jar with typical Wari figure and chevron 
motifs. Orange, red, cream, black, and grey, Z^/2' h. (Grave 
lot with No. 51 7.) South Coast Wari, Ocucaje. AR 

471. Miniature effigy jar. Black, white, red ground, 334" h. Nazca 
Wari. EN 

472. Effigy jar, head spout, stylized feline motif. Polychrome, 
red ground, 9" h. South Coast Wari, Ocucaje. OS 

473. Bowl, four fish on interior rim. Polychrome, red and orange 
ground, 7y3" diameter. South Coast Wari, Ocucaje. AR 

474. Textile, ends and corner tabs tapestry - woven with typical 
early Wari motifs. Geometric embroidered motifs on plain 
cloth center, 5' 6'/2"x4' 2'/2". TG 

475. Shirt, borders of stylized Wari motifs. 1' llYs" (incl. 
fringe)x2'63/s". MRI 

476. Two coca bags tapestry-woven with Wari motifs. CS 

A. 5'/2x5'/2"- 

B. 57/8 x5y4". 

477. Fragment of hanging, eight geometricised feline figures 
holding trophy heads in one hand. (Compare with No. 465.) 
Warp and weft interlock technique, 12' 10y2"x3' 1%". 
TMDC 



63 



THE WARI ART STYLE 600-1,000 A.D. 



Wari iconography follows that of the Tiahuanaco culture quite 
closely and most of its motifs may be found on stone monuments 
at the great ruined city of Tiahuanaco in Bolivia. It is quite likely 
that these motifs were brought to Wari primarily on textiles. 
Finely woven tapestry designs of the period often follow Tia- 
huanaco models closely, and some motifs peculiar to these 
textiles are frequently seen on Wari ceramics (Nos. 479, 488, etc.) 
though they are not characteristic of Tiahuanaco pottery. 
After the Tiahuanaco religion was firmly established at Wari the 
culture quickly and aggressively brought most of Peru under its 
control. This expansion does not appear to have been as peace- 
ful as it evidently had been in the south coast. The subjugation 
of an area is usually recorded for the archeologist by a thick 
layer of ashes above which few vestiges of the conquered 
people's culture survive. 

The war-like spirit of the Wari is admirably conveyed by their art 
style. Motifs are rendered in strong straight and curved lines 
accented by striking color contrasts. Craftmanship is highly com- 
petent and the total effect is one of strength and vitality. Wari 
ceramics of remarkable uniform quality are found throughout the 
area the culture once dominated. Since regional Wari styles are 
also found it is inferred that the highland types were for special 
ceremonial or official use 







64 



530 (detail) 



THE WARl ART STYLE, 600-1000 A.D. 



The following ten objects were found at Wari: 501 . 

478. Flaring bowl, interior pouring spout, puma heads. Poly- 
chrome, black ground, 2%" h., lOya" diameter. HYO 

479. Cup, textile motif (See Nos. 527-530.) Polychrome, black 502. 
ground, 41/4" h. HYO 

480. Straight sided bowl, profile heads. Polychrome, red ground, 503. 
31/3" h. HYO 

481. Flaring bowl, hawk head with headdress. Polychrome, red 504. 
ground, 278" h. HYO 

482. Dog effigy bottle. Black, white, red, 51/3" h. HYO 

483. Ceramic standing female figure. Beige and black, 8%" h. 505. 
HYO 

484. Head jar. White, red, and black, AYb" h. HYO 

485. Textile strap, feline and other motifs. 26" long. AYO 506. 

486. Wooden trumpet with carved warrior figure. 261/2" h. AYO 

487. Two small turquoise figures. AYO 

A. Seated, holding cup. 1 1/2" h. 507. 

B. Standing holding shield. 1 1/2" h. 

The following ten examples from Ocucaje, and other south 
coast sites, have been selected for comparison with Nos. 
478-487. 

488. Flaring bowl, interior pouring spout, textile motif. Grey, 
brown ground, 3%" h. AC 

489. Cup, puma head motif. Cream, grey, orange band on black 
ground, 33/4" h. OS 

490. Straight sided bowl, puma figures. Polychrome, red interior, 
31/3" h.CS 

491. Flaring bowl, puma heads with headdress. Polychrome, red 
ground, 37/3" h. OS 

492. Dog effigy bottle. Black, white, red, 6" h. MNA 

493. Figure of warrior standing on boat. Beige, black, brown, red, 
8i/3"h. CS 

494. Head jar, two loop handles. Brown, beige, red, white on 
black ground, 3%" h. CS 

495. Textile fragment, feline and other motifs. 1' 4%"xr 2'/2" 
(irregular). FS 

496. Wooden beaker in form of bird headed figure, 6%" h. PT 

497. Small turquoise figure, standing warrior, 13/3" h. AR 512. 
These figures are found throughout Wari dominated 
territory. 

498. Two small turquoise figures. Chicama valley. North Coast. 513. 
ML 

A. Standing figure, circles on poncho, iy3" h. 514. 

B. Standing figure, chevrons on poncho, 1 '72" h. 

The following objects illustrate the basic motifs of the Wari 515. 
religion. 516. 

499. Flask shaped effigy bottle, God head on neck, arms holding 517. 
sacrificial victim in relief. Red, beige, black, grey, brown, 

8%" h. Coyungo. Rio Grande valley. ANON 518. 

500. God on litter, hands to front once held ceremonial wands of 
another material. Polychrome, red ground, lOYs" h. Ocucaje, 519. 
PT 



508. 



509. 



510. 



511. 



Feather headdress and strap similar to that worn by # 500. 

South coast. Hat, 734" h., 6" diameter. Collar, 5xl0'/2"- 

TMDC 

Seated figure holding cup (Kero) to front. Polychrome, red 

ground, 7%" h. lea valley. MRI 

Four cornered, pile cloth hat similar to that worn by # 502. 

5x4". South coast. TMDC 

Kero (traditional Tiahuanaco cup form, compare with # 544), 

with hawk heads and chevron motifs. Polychrome, red 

ground, S'/s" h. Cahuachi, Nazca valley. RA 

Bottle, skull face on neck, rampant anthropomorphic puma 

figures. Polychrome, black ground, 6%" h. South coast. 

ANON 

Bowl, one-half interior bears anthropomorphic puma figure, 

one-half geometric. Exterior, polychrome; interior, red, 

37/3" h. Nazca valley. MRI 

Flaring bowl, anthropomorphic puma figures holding trophy 

heads and ceremonial wands. Exterior, polychrome; interior, 

red, 373" h. Cahuachi. FT 

Ceramics in the form of human figures, birds and animals 

were characteristic of the Wari style (see Nos. 482-484 and 

492-494). The following are additional examples. 

Ceramic fragment. Sensitively modelled head of infant. 

Cream and red, 23/3" h. (Highland Wari) Wacaurara, Dept. 

of Huancayo. AYO 

Double spout head bottle. Black and red, 6%" h. Pacha- 

camac. Central coast. (An important Wari ceremonial 

center.) MNA 

Jar, seated man holding spondylus shell. Black, white and 

traces of green on buff, 8" h. Batan Grande, Lambayeque 

valley. (The northernmost point on the coast from which 

Wari ceramics have been reported.) HZ 

Pair effigy bottles. Seated figures, knees drawn up inside 

poncho. Central and side seams, necklace, and arms, 

painted on surface. Ocucaje. CS 

A. Orange, black, white ground, 5" h. 

B. Orange, black, white ground, 5"h. 

Large jar, head spout, trophy heads flanked by complex 

llama motifs with human hands holding fruit, feline back feet. 

and stylized wings. Polychrome, 33'/2" h. MNA 

Large jar, head spout, band of hand motifs. Polychrome, red 

ground, 35" h. MNA 

Fragment, head spout or large jar. Orange, 8%" h. Ocucaje. 

CS 

Jar, head spout. Greyware, 13%" h. Ocucaje. CS 

Llama head jar. Brownware, 4% " h. Nazca valley. MRI 

Abstracted feline head cup. Polychrome, red ground, 4" h. 

Ocucaje. AR 

Crouching feline effigy bottle. Black, brown, white, AYs" h. 

Ocucaje. AR 

Bird effigy bottle. Black, white ground, 4^/3" h. South coast. 

MRI 



65 




533 (detail) 



520. Parrot effigy bottle. Grey, red ground, 5V8" h. South coast. 
YA 

Textile designs were frequently used to ornament War! 
ceramics (479-488). Three additional examples are listed 
below. 

521. Bowl, tripod legs. Checkerboard and human hand motifs on 
interior. Black, orange, white ground, 4" h. Ocucaje. CS 

522. Double spout bottle, band of stylized head and stepped 
spiral motifs. Polychrome, black ground, 5%" h. Nazca 
valley. MRI 

523. Similar to 522. Polychrome, red ground, Z'/n" h. Ocucaje. CS 

WARI TEXTILES 

Finely woven interlocking tapestry poncho shirts that were evi- 
dently official Wari garments have also been found in all parts 
of the Wari controlled area. Like Wari ceramics, they are quite 
uniform in quality, design and technique of manufacture. The 
weaving of two matched halves of the garment on an extremely 
broad horizontal loom appears to be a higland tradition that may 
have originated at Tiahuanaco. Several distinct groups of motifs 
occur, each evidently associated with a definite rank of official. 
The following examples show the principle design types listed in 
the order of their frequency of occurence. 



524. Fragment, stepped spiral motifs in bands. 2' 6"x2' (outside 
measurements). Highland Wari, Tucucu, Sancos, Dept. 
Ayacucho (a rare example of textile survival in the high- 
lands). AYO 

525. Complete poncho shirt of same design as 524. (The garment 
was shortened in ancient times by removing two rows of 
motifs in the shoulder.) 3' 4%"x2' 11%". Provenience un- 
known. TMDC 

526. Complete shirt. Paired abstracted heads and stepped spirals 
alternating with interlocking puma headed staff motifs. 
3' 11%"x3' 7". Ocucaje. PT 

527. Complete shirt. Same designs as 526 further abstracted 
and with different cooir scheme. 3' 5"x3' A^/2' ■ Hda. Monte- 
grande, Nazca valley. MRI 

528. Complete shirt, bands of four way repeat abstract motifs. 
3' y8"x3' 534". Ocucaje. PT 

529. Tapestry band (for hat)?, winged figure holding baton alter- 
nating with figure standing on balsa reed boat compare 
with 493. 2' 2V2" (plus unwoven warps 8"x434"). Coyungo, 
Rio Grande valley. TMDC 

'530. One-half shirt. Band of winged anthropomorphic puma 
motifs holding batons. T 7%"x6' 6%". Ocucaje. CS 

"531. Complete shirt. Same motif as 530 but abstracted beyond 
the point of easy recognition. 3' y^" y^'^ S'^"- Provenience 
unknown. MNA 

Other objects showing the treatment of the winged puma 
and related motifs in various media: 

'532. Wood lime with stone and shell inlays. Red, green, white, 
4%" h. Provenience unknown. DS 

'533. Gold headdress and costume ornaments, repousse cut-out 
sheets. 33 pieces, largest 22y2" long. Provenience un- 
known. HC 

'534. Effigy jar. Red, grey, cream, and brown, 5y2" h. Batan 
Grande, Lambayeque valley. HZ 

535. Copper. Standing figure of puma headed warrior holding 
battle-axe and shield. 4%" h. Wari. ML 

536. Wood lime bottle, seated puma holding trophy head. SVi" h. 
Inlays missing. Estaquena, Nazca valley. HA 

537. Throwing stick. Bone handle carved in form of feline holding 
trophy head. 18%" h. Tambo de Perro, Nazca valley. HA 

538. Diamond shaped feather mosaic ornament, skull motif. 
4x3'/4". South coast, ANON 

The following two tapestry woven shirts belong to the last 
part of the Wari period. Like the official garments they were 
woven in two sections on a broad loom, then sewn together 
with the weft direction vertical on the garment. 

539. Shirt, highly abstracted skull(?) motifs against a background 
of tuning fork-like elements. 3' 3V2"x3' Z^/z" ■ Ocucaje. PT 

540. Shirt with highly colored vertical stripes and tassels at 
sleeves, neck and corner. 3' 272 "x2' 10%". Chavina, Acari 
valley. MRI 



66 




532 



534 



67 




531 (detail) 



68 



A GLIMPSE OF SOUTHERN HIGHLAND 
STYLES 



Not enough is known of the archeology of the southern highlands 
for us to be able to reconstruct its early history with any reason- 
able degree of clarity. Excavations have been conducted at 
Pukara, a site northwest of Lake Titicaca, revealing an early 
culture whose incised and slip decorated ceramics and stone 
sculpture show a close relationship with the Tiahuanaco culture. 
It has been proven to be contemporary with the early cultural 
stages at Tiahuanaco, Bolivia, but the relationship between the 
two groups is not yet understood. 



PUKARA CULTURE, CA. 500-200 B.C. 

541. Bowl reconstructed from large sherd. Incised and slip 
painted decoration of two anthropomorphic puma figures. 
(Compare with 530.) (Only a few small complete ceramics 
have so far been found of the Pukara style) 4" h., 8%" 
diameter. MNA 

542. Stone sculpture. Human figure, hands to abdomen. Rhyolite 
porphyry, 171/4" h, MNA 

543. Stone sculpture. Deeply weathered standing human figure. 
Rhyolite porphyry, 1254" h. JP 



69 



TIAHUANACO CULTURE, 300-700 A.D. 



A FEW CENTRAL HIGHLAND EXAMPLES 



544. Kero, stylized puma figure, and band of geometric motifs. 
Polychrome, red ground, syg" h. MNA 

545. Bowl, stylized puma and other motifs. Polychrome, red 
ground, Vk" h. MNA 

546. Bowl, stylized hawk and other motifs. S'/g" h., 4" diameter. 
MNA 

547. Jar in form of bird (grebe). Black, 5yg" h. Koati Island, Lake 
Titicaca. AMNH 

548. Jar, pitcher form with strap handle, geometric decor, 7%" h. 
Post Tiahuanaco, southern highlands, ca. 1200 A.D. ANON 



Examples of Non-Wari styles from the central highlands are 
scarce and difficult to place in proper cultural context. The follow- 
ing represent a few random pieces of the jigsaw puzzle. 

549. Stone vase. Basalt (?), 7%" h. Pre-Wari, Vilcas Huaman, 
Dept. Ayacucho. Its close relationship in form to the Proto 
Nazca stone vase (#397) suggest as yet undiscovered 
early relationships with the south coast cultures. AYO 

550. Flaring bowl, negative geometric decoration. 3" diameter. 
Pre-Wari. Huanca, Dept. Huancayo. HYO 

551. Solid clay figurine. 5yg" h. Late Nazca related. Huanca, 
Dept. Huancayo. HYO 

*552. Conical based effigy jar, 2 loop handles, abstract face on 
neck, decorated with groups of parallel black lines. 17%" h. 
From the eastern slope of the Andes near Chilcas in the 
Pampas river valley. Dept. Ayacucho. AYO 



70 




552 



THE EARLY LIMA STYLE, 100-700 A.D. 



During the first millennium B.C., cultural development in the 
central coast area lagged somewhat behind that of the north and 
south coast zones. In the early centuries of the Christian era, 
however, large ceremonial centers were constructed in the Rimac 
and neighboring valleys by what is called the Early Lima or 
Maranga culture. The ceramic art of this group is less known than 
that of their Mochica and Nazca contemporaries, but in its own 
way it is their esthetic equal. 

Early Lima ceramics are relatively rare in museum collections due 
in part to the heavy looting of cemeteries in the area during 
colonial times. They are a fine orangeware and combine skillful 
modelling with artful slip decoration. 

Orangeware with cream and brown slip, unless otherwise 

indicated. 



553. Deep bowl, interlocking serpent design. SYg" h. Huaca 
Culebras, Chillon valley. (The ceramic is closely related in 
design to murals found in the same structure.) lAA 

554. Double spout head bottle, snarling ocelot. 7%" h. Pachi- 
camac, Lurin valley. MNA 

555. Single spout bottle, hawk with snake in its beak standing 
on lenticular form. 5y2" h. Pachicamac, Lurin valley. MNA 

556. Double spout bottle with arched strap handle. House form, 
shepherd with herd of llamas one side, guard watching 
ocelot on other. 6%" h. Rimac valley (?). ML 

*557. Effigy bottle, llama with small llama at its side. Brown, red 

ground, G'A" h. Rimac valley(?}. ANON 
558. Single spout bottle, frog seated atop rectangular form. 

Orange, brown, red, 61/2" h. Nieveria, Rimac valley. AiCG 




71 



557 




564 



72 



CENTRAL COAST WARI STYLES, 700-1000 A.D. 



Around 600 A.D., the Early Lima culture came under strong high- 
land influence and soon its capitol Pachicamac became one of 
the most important Wari ceremonial centers on the coast. Typical 
Wari wares are found at Pachicamac, but elsewhere on the 
central coast ceramics showed a distinctly regional interpreta- 
tion of the Wari style. 

Orangeware with colored slip, unless otherwise indicated. 

COASTAL WARI - RIMAC VALLEY 

559. Double vessel, Kero and seated monkey. 71/2" h. WG 
COASTAL WARI - CHANCAY VALLEY 

560. Feline effigy jar. 61/4" h. DS 

561. Kero, frontal figure. SYg" h. RA 

562. Deep flaring bowl, abstract bird motifs, 6yg" h., TYs" dia- 
meter. TO 

563. Deep flarmg bowl, abstract bird and other motifs. S'^" h., 
51/4" diameter. ANON 

'564. Fragment of painted hanging. Frontal figure and abstract 
fish. 3'978"x3'8".AC 

565. Fragment of painted hanging. Frontal figure three standards 
and other motifs. 4' 8"x2' 4%". AC 

566. Effigy jar, rectangular grid painted on chest. "Teatino" style. 
Iiy8"h. RA 

567. Hourglass-shaped beaker, lid with celt-shaped handle. 
"Teatino" style. 101/4" h. RA 

COASTAL WARI - HUARA VALLEY 

568. Tripod bowl, frontal face with plumed headdress. 3%" h. 
MNA 

569. Parrot effigy jar. 5%" h. MNA 

570. Birdeffigy bottle, 61/2" h. MNA 

571. Effigy jar, double headed serpents in relief on shoulders, 



braids end in serpent designs. 13%" h. WG 

572. Tapestry band, standing anthropomorphic puma figures. 
6'2"x3'/4".RA 

573. Tapestry fragment, abstracted profile figures, border of 
geometric bird heads. 6'/2x6y2". (Provenience uncertain.) 
AYO 

COASTAL WARI - PATAVILCA VALLEY 

574. Double flask form bottle with single spout. Blackware with 
abstracted winged anthropomorphic puma motifs in relief on 
each side. 103/4" h WG 

THE NORTH COAST WARI STYLE 

A distinctive coastal Wari ceramic style is found in the area 
formerly dominated by the Mochica culture (the Casma to the 
Chicama Valleys). It is usually rather crudely made orangeware, 
densely decorated with highly stylized motifs in black and white 
slip. At its best it exhibits a barbaric vitality. 
Our selection is non-representative in that it emphasizes sculptur- 
ed forms which are relatively rare. 

Orangeware with black, white, and orange slip. 

575. Jar with two modelled monkeys at neck. Painted abstract 
fish, and other motifs (compare with 564). 12'/2 " h. MNA 

*576. Jar in form of llama skull, human head spout with two 
modelled monkeys holding ears. W/2" h. MNA 

577. Head jar. Single spout, 71/2" h. MNA 

578. Effigy jar, seated man holding mirror, plucking beard with 
tweezers, e/s" h. MNA 

579. Tapestry bag, elaborate seated anthropomorphic figure each 
side, border of bird heads on stepped triangles. Provenience 
unknown but quite possibly from this area. 678x9%". WG 



73 



576 



THE PERIOD OF KINGDOMS AND 
CONFEDERATIONS, 1000-1450 A.D. 



Following the break up of the Wari empire the populations of 
groups of neighbouring coastal valleys and large highland basins 
were unified into a number of separate kingdoms and confedera- 
tions. They varied considerably in size and prosperity but some 
of them on the coast achieved great advancement in social and 
political organization and constructed large well planned cities 
and ceremonial centers. By comparison with earlier epochs, the 
level of artistic achievement during this period generally declined 
but the irrepressible vitality of ancient Peruvian society con- 
tinued to be expressed in a variety of regional styles. 

THE CAJAMARCA STYLE, 1000-1450 

Cajamarca had become the cultural center of the northern high- 
lands during the Wari period. It continued as a focus of northern 
cultural activity down to the time of the conquest when it was 
the setting for the Incas fatal confrontation with Pizarro in 1532. 
The term Cajamarca is applied to a variety of related ceramic 
styles found over a wide area extending from the upper portions 
of the coastal valleys to the Maranon. Many examples found in 
recent years are said to have come from the vicinity of Tembla- 
dera. The Cajamarca style shows a continuation of late Recuay 
slip decorated creamware types modified by Wari influence. 




Creamware, slip decorated, unless otherwise indicated. 

580. Three spoons decorated with curvilinear motifs. RA 

A. 35/3" long. 

B. 3%" long. 

C. 372" long. 

581. Kero with human face in relief, flange, geometric motifs. 
S'/j" h. RA 

582. Bowl, curvilinear designs with abstract bird heads. 4%" h., 
6%" diameter. RA 

583. Tripod bowl, mice and rectangular panel motifs. SVb" h. 
MNA 

584. Tripod bowl, curvilinear motifs. Buffware, orange and black. 
5" h., 57/8" diameter. ANON 

585. Ring based bowl, octopus-like design on interior. 2%" h., 
y'/a" diameter. MNA 

586. Small ring based cup with handle. Shell form, cross hatched 
design. 3%" h. Marainon valley. ANON 

The following are interior decorated ring base bowls 
(587-593). 

587. Long tailed animal motif. ^%" h., 41/2" diameter. ANON 

588. "S" shaped reverse spirals and other motifs in quartered 
design. 21/2" h., 6%" diameter. RA 

589. Bisecting parallel lines with spiral appendages. 2'/2" h., 
6Ys" diameter. RA 

590. Pinwheel design. 2%" h., 63/4" diameter. AMNH 

591. Pair, possibly from Moro Ciego, Jequetepeque valley. MBL 

A. Crossed pairs of double lines with diagonal and circles 
at rim. 272" h., 5%" diameter. 

B. Crossed pairs of double lines with round dots between. 
21/2" h., 5%" diameter. 

*592. Abstract insect(?) motif, sunburst center with legs and head 
attached to edge. 1 5" diameter. JLP 

593. Maltese crosses in circles with small circles forming back- 
ground. 10" diameter. JLP 

594. Pitcher with strap handle, two bird forms on rim, Crosshatch 
and spirals etc. decoration. Cream and orange slip, 45/5" h. 
ANON 

595. Similar pitcher, small circles cover surface. Cream and 
orange slip, A'/s " h. ANON 

OTHER LATE NORTH HIGHLAND STYLES 

596. Standing, hollow ceramic, male figurine. Elongated head, 
hands on abdomen, two holes in chest for suspension. 
Grey, traces of cream paint. 10%" h. Excavated by Tello at 
Tantamayo, in the southern portion of the Maranon valley. 
MNA 

597. Grotesque stone head on cylindrical shaft. Rhyolite por- 
phyry, 35" long. Provenience and cultural affiliation un- 
known. MNA 

598. Tenoned stone head with crested headdress. Rhyolite por- 
phyry, 133/5" h. Huaylas style, possibly Inca contemporary. 
Callyon de Huaylas. MNA 



592 



THE LAMBAYEQUE KINGDOM, 700-1200 A.D. 



THE LAMBAYEQUE STYLE, 700-1200 A.D. 



The Lambayeque valley occupies the broad coastal plain just 
below the Sechura Desert on the far north coast of Peru. Actually 
it is a complex of three valleys incorporating the Leche and 
Motupe, whose rivers never reach the sea. Together they irrigate 
the largest single area of cultivated land in modern Peru. In 
ancient times the area under cultivation was much larger since 
today's crops of rice and sugar cane use several times the 
amount of water needed for pre-Columbian corn and beans. 
The research of Paul Kosok and others has revealed that the 
ancients had also incorporated the Zafia and Jequetepeque 
valleys to the south into one vast irrigation network with the 
Lambayeque bringing over 100 miles of coastal plain under con- 
tinuous cultivation. Kosok estimates that the combined area com- 
prised one third of the cultivated land in pre-Columbian coastal 
Peru and supported an equal proportion of its population. 
It is a surprising fact that this important zone teeming with ancient 
ruins, is one of the least studied and understood of all Peru. Its 
remoteness from Lima and its very size and complexity have 
discouraged archeologists. It will require a sustained program 
of many specialists to unveil its secrets. 

Practically nothing is known of early Lambayeque history though 
there are indications that it shared some of the cultural trends 
recently discovered at Vicus. A few Mochica V ceramics have 
been discovered at Batan Grande in the Leche valley ( # 299), 
along with even fewer examples of the Wari style (Nos. 510 and 
533) but neither of those cultures appear to have gained much of 
a foothold north of the Zaina valley. The large and well organized 
Lambayeque population, while susceptible to outside influences, 
appears to have maintained its independence until around 1200 
when it was incorporated into the expanding Chimu empire. 



Unless otherwise indicated, the following ceramics are 
stirrup spout bottles in orange to buff wares decorated with 
fine line motifs in fugitive black and some cream paint. 

599. Flaring ring base. Relief of running warrior. Traces of orange 
and brown paint, 7%" h. HZ 

600. Kero, with incised band at center. Painted concentric circles 
and plumed motifs. 5 " h. HZ 

601. Kero similar to 600 but with checkerboard motif and two 
attached modeled pepinos (fruit) decorated with bean 
motifs. 5" h. HZ 

602. Cluster of four pepinos. Stepped crest on stirrup, wide 
flaring spout, syg" h. MBL 

603. Jar with flaring spout, and ring base. Two modeled birds, 
four painted birds, geometric border. 5%" h. HZ 

604. Three doves back to back. 6%" h. HZ 

605. Figure with elaborate headdress holding discs in each hand, 
standing in platform with stepped parapet (see gold figure 
No, 618). y'/j" h. Batan Grande. HZ 

606. Single spout bottle with strap handle. Head spout, figures 
on handle, two bird flanges, 3 painted panels of warriors. 
6y8"h. ANON 

607. Single spout bottle. Flaring ring base. Spout figure on litter 
carried by four men. Blackware, SVb" h. ANON 

The fine line drawings in fugitive black paint on Lambayeque 
pottery are often poorly preserved. It is exceptionally rare 
to find an exemple on which the colorful paints that were 
applied after firing are also preserved. ( # 610.) This 
practice evidently had been general but ground water from 
infrequent rains has removed most traces. 

608. Ornament (for altar?) in form of head with crested head- 
dress. Traces of white and green paint. Black, white, cream, 
8" h. HZ 

609. Head ornament similar to 608 but with simple headdress and 
no traces of paint, 6'^ " h. MBL 

610. Double spout bottle with arched pierced work, bridge handle 
with small house form and reclining figures. Well preserved 
traces of cream, buff and green paints over black line motifs 
on body of vessel and in bands on long tapering spouts, 
8y4"h. HZ 

611. Fragment of painted cloth. Figures elaborate headdress 
holding tasseled bags. Cotton, 27V2x27'/4". TMDC 



76 



THE LAMBAYEQUE-CHIMU STYLE, 1200-1470 A.D. 



'612. Double spout bottle in form of gateway guarded by soldiers. 
House form and reclining figures on arched handle. Orange 
and cream slip, 81/2" h. DS 

613. Double spout vessel with 3 figures on arched strap handle. 
Blackware, 12" h. MNA 

614. Double vessel with whistle, cylindrical form, with relief 
bands, one with spout, the other with two monkeys carrying 
small monkey in sling litter. Orangeware, black and traces 
of cream paint, 1^/2" h. Leche valley. MBL 

615. Double vessel with whistle, one flask shaped with spout, 
the other cube shaped with four men carrying dead man(?} 
on litter. Cream and orange, 6%" h. Batan Grande. MBL 

*616. Double vessel, one flask shaped, other seated woman hold- 
ing child, monkeys on shouders. Blackware, 7" h. SD 

617. Head jar, one-eyed man with lizzard on nose. Orangeware, 
6y8"h. HZ 

Objects from the Lambayeque that are in pure Chimu style 
are listed under Chlmu. (Nos. 640. 641.654, and 655.) 





616 



612 



77 



LAMBAYEQUE GOLD, 700-1470 A.D. 




619 



The Lambayeque valley, especially the great ceremonial center 
of Batan Grande, has been the site of the largest discoveries of 
pre-Columbian gold in modern times. Examples are listed here 
without attempting to divide them between the Lambayeque and 
Chimu periods since the style remained essentially the same. 
618. Figure with crested headdress holding discs in hands. (Was 

inlaid with shell or stone.) Compare with # 605. 4%" h., 

51,8 gm. HC 
'619. Disc with elaborately dressed personage holding beaker 

and wand. Figure is made of separate repousse cutout 

sheets. 4" diameter, 25 gm. Batan Grande. MBL 

620. Four gold pins, Tucums, Leche valley. MBL 

A. Figure related to 618 etc. 1% " h., 1 15 gm. 

B. Figure elaborate crested headdress, deer mask, holds 
rods in hands. 1 Yg " h., 7.45 gm. 

C. Figure, elaborate headdress, holds drum. lYg" h., 6.1 gm. 

D. Spider with crested headdress. 178 " h, 8.4 gm. 

621 . Necklage of 28 repousse idols (pressed into mold). 29" long. 
Batan Grande. MBL 

622. 7 miniature Keros with repousse designs of bird heads. 
2" h., 9 gm. Batan Grande. MBL 

623. 3 gold Keros, Batan Grande. DS 

A. Two repousse bands, seated monkey figures, protruding 
tongues. 7%" h., 454" diameter, 209 gm. 

B. Two repousse frontal figures holding lances. 75/3" h., 
472" diameter, 208.1 gm. 

C. Two repousse bands elaborate wave repeat, birds and 
fish. 7%" h., 472" diameter, 208.1 gm 

624. Kero, four repousse frogs, four faces with crescent head- 
dress. 5%" h., 53/3" diameter, 170.9 gm. FT 




(detail no. 603) 



78 



A SAMPLE FROM TUMBES 



Tumbes, where Pizarro landed in 1532, is the northernmost port 
of modern Peru. The area is archeologically related to the great 
Bay of Guayaquil region of Ecuador. Though Tumbes means 
tombs, very few ancient art objects from the area have found 
their way into museums and private collections. Our single 
example offers a glimpse of a strange style unrelated to other 
Peruvian antiquities. 
625. Flaring rim stand with geometric incised decor and head, 

tail and feet of lizzard in high relief. Buff, traces of cream, 

orange and black, 7%" h. MNA 



79 



THE CHIMU KINGDOM, 1000-1470 A.D. 



The largest and most impressive ruin on the coast of Peru is 
Chan Chan near Trujillo which was the capitol of the Chimu, the 
best known of the kingdoms that formed after the collapse of the 
Wari empire. It was in many ways a renaissance of the Mochica 
culture. By the 15th century the Chimu had extended their in- 
fluence throughout most of the coast of Peru and were the 
principle rivals of the Incas. 

Chimu ceramics were predominantely blackwares and in the 
absence of specific knowledge there has been a tendency to 
lump all black ceramics under the term, especially those of 
diverse north costal groups which were eventually absorbed into 
the Chimu empire. Most of these late ceramics were mass pro- 
duced and poor in quality, giving the term Chimu a connotation 
of artistic decadence. By careful selection, this exhibition dem- 
onstrates that Chimu art at its best is worthy of inclusion among 
ancient Peru's great art styles. 

The sequence of Chimu art styles has not been well clarified 
archeologically. The tentative periods suggested below place 
the selected examples in what seems to be their general chrono- 
logical order. 

EARLY CHIMU ART, 1000-1200 A.D. 

All have long tapering spouts, arched strap handles and 
whistles unless otherwise indicated. 



626. Muffin shaped bottle with figures of three musicians. Orange- 
ware, red and cream slip, 12" h. MNA 

627. Bird effigy bottle, beak to wing. Orangeware, red and cream 
slip. 93/4" h. GG 

'628. Double vessel, fish forms, bird atop one. Creamware, black 
line decoration, lYg" h. From upper Jequetepeque valley. 
GG 

Cajamarca influence is indicated as the source of the "North 
coast cursive" style which includes # 627 and the follow- 
ing two examples from the Moche valley. 

629. Double vessel, one-half flask, other bird effigy. Orangeware, 
fine cursive decoration, 7%" h. Moche valley. WG 

630. Double vessel, cube shapes, one with four figures carrying 
a personage on a litter. Orangeware, cursive decoration 
indistinct, ly^" h. Chan Chan. (Compare with # 615.) SD 

631. Double spout spherical bottle, flaring ring base 12 mold 
made frogs. Blackware, ^8%" h. Provenience unknown. RA 

'632. Double spout bottle, lobster atop rectangular form, monkeys 
at base of spouts. Blackware, 6%" h. Chan Chan. MAT 

633. Frog effigy bottle. Blackware, b'^" h. Provenience unknown. 
MAT 

634. Wooden idol with shell inlays, standing figure holding bowl. 
IS'/g " h. From Huaca Dragon, a temple on the outskirts of 
Chan Chan. MAT 



80 




632 




628 



MIDDLE CHIMU CERAMICS, 1200-1350 A.D. 



LATE CHIMU CERAMICS, 1350-1470 A.D. 



Blackwares predominate (635-639) but fine orangewares 
also occur (640-642). 

635. Low ovoid vessel with single spout and arched strap handle 
to seated figure. 8"h. Chan Chan. MNA 

Ttie following, except for 635. 637 and 639, are stirrup spout 
bottles. 

636. Seated figure of man playing flute. 9%" h. Chan Chan. MAT 

637. Single spout bottle, two lizzard forms on sides. 9'/2" h. 
Chan Chan. MAT 

638. Reclining deer. 8%" h. Provenience unknown. MA 

639. Head cup, smiling face. 37a" h. Piura valley. DS 

640. Seated man with deeply lined face playing pipes of Pan. 
Orangeware, 8" h. Lambayeque valley(?) MNA 

*641. Seated blindman eating. Orangeware, Syg" h. Lambayeque 
valley(?) ML 

642. Low ovoid capped form, birds at base of stirrups. Orange- 
ware, 9" h. Chicama valley. AS 

WOODEN IDOLS FROM CHAN CHAN 

643. Standing female figure, holds beaker in hands to front. Face 
painted red, 31 1/4" h. MAT 

644. Female figure seated crosslegged, holds beaker in hands. 
Deeply eaten by termites. 33y4 " h. MNA 

645. Seated figure holding beaker in hands. Face painted red, 
originally overlaid with silver garments. 37'/2" h. ML 



Stirrup spout bottles. 

646. Two parrots seated atop cube form. Orangeware, lO'/g" h. 
Provenience unknown. MNA 

647. House form, relief of cats on posts, figure seated within 
structure, another at side. Blackware, 9%" h. Chan Chan. 
MAT 

'648. Monkey standing on all fours. Blackware, lO'/a" h. Moche 
valley. MNA 

649. Low ovoid form with six fruit forms attached to outer circum- 
ference. Blackware, 8%". Chicama valley. ANON 



82 




641 



648 



741 



83 



OTHER CHIMU ART FORMS, 1000-1450 A.D. 

*650. Textile hanging, warp and weft interlock technique. Geo- 
metric bird motif similar to those executed in adobe at 
Chan Chan. 6' 10"x5' 11/4". AC 

651. Silver bowl with cast figure of deer with bell around neck 
in center. SYj" h., 7%" diameter. AC 

652. Silvered copper bowl, repousse crested animal figures, 
stone inlays. 2yg" h., 7%" diameter. HC 

653. Feline head, copper pole finial. 3%" h. WG 

654. Copper disc, cast pierced work with dangles. 3Yg" diam- 
eter. Leche valley. MBL 

655. Copper disc, incised feline with human head in mouth. 
SYs" diameter, Lambayeque valley. MBL 



650 



THE CHANCAY CULTURE, 1000-1470 A.D. 



A confederation of central coast valleys, centering in the Huara 
and Chancay developed a distinctive culture of its own con- 
temporary with the Chimu. 



} I i I 




659 



86 



CHANCAY CERAMICS 

Chancay ceramics, like those of the Chimu have been looked 
down on because of their abundance and connparatively poor 
workmanship. The style is primitive, almost child-like, but while 
it is never particularly forceful, it often has great charm. It began 
in early post-Wari times with the use of red and black on cream 
slip, but gradually dropped the red decor in favor of stark black 
and cream or pure cream colored wares. 

656. Pair of figurines, arms raised to sides, red and black on 
cream. ANON 

A. Standing female. 20" h. 

B. Standing male. 20" h. 

657. Seated female figurine, arms raised, red slipped chest, arms 
and head, incised band on headdress. lOYg" h. TG 

658. Effigy jar, seated man, one hand amputated, holding panpipe 
to mouth with other. Flanged headdress, round ear orna- 
ments and wide necklace. Black body, 10%" h. MNA 

'659. Effigy jar, seated man holding cup, flanged headdress, ear 
spools. Black and orange on cream, 19%" h. Huaral, Chan- 
cay valley. FT 
660. Effigy jar. Man seated on reed boat. Black on cream, 9% " h- 
RA 

*661. Jar lid. Circular disc with handle in form of a spotted 
feline figure tied with twisted rope to stake. Black on cream, 
3%" h. RA 

The following three examples are creamware, double 
vessels with long tapered spout on one, figure with whistle 
in head on the other. 

662. Standing figure blowing flute. 8%" h. AC 

663. Seated bird. ]0%" h. RA 

664. Standing figure playing pipes of Pan, coffee bean eyes, 
incised skirt detail. W%" h. RA 

665. Double vessel, jar and standing seal. Black and cream, 
ll'/j" h. RA 

666. Double vessel, flaring beaker and Inverted olla form with 
parrot. Black, cream ground, 9" h. RA 

667. Large effigy jar, figure holding goblet, disc ornament on 
headdress, parrot on shoulder. Black, cream ground, 
291/4" h. SZ 

668. Three undecorated flaring beakers. 

A. 8" h. 

B. 73/4" h. 

C. 7%" h. 

669. Chalice, undecorated. Cream, 51/2" h. AC 

670. Pedestal base bowl with constricted rim, two modelled frogs 
applied. Cream, S'/j" h. AC 

671. Modified hemispherical bowl with slightly constricted rim. 
Band of black and cream triangles, small applied decoration 
either side, 3%" h., eVs" diameter. AC 

672. Shallow bowl, bisecting lines ending in half round faces. 
Black, cream ground, 2% " h. AC 

673. Standing female figure, arms raised, diagonal black lines 
from eyes, geometric head band. Black, cream ground, 
235/5" h. AC 



87 



CHANCAY TEXTILES, 1000-1470 A.D. 



CHANCAY WOODEN OBJECTS, 1000-1470 A.D. 



The Chancay people were prolific weavers in a variety of tech- 
niques. Fortunately the central coast desert cemetaries provide 
ideal conditions for their preservation. Dyed alpaca wool was 
used for colored designs woven on cotton warps. 

674. Tapestry hanging. Twelve large stylized jaguars with crested 
headdresses, four caymans. 7' 3V2"x1 1' 2". TMDC 

675. Brocaded hanging, bands of anthropomorphic cats with 
monkey, bird and other motifs. 8' 1%"x5' 3". TG 

676. Tapestry loin cloth apron with fringe. Figure with crested 
headdress in front of architectural setting(?). 1' 8y2"x8". DS 

677. Painted cotton panel. Zigzags and bird figures. 1' 7%" x 
5'2y4".TG 

678. Brown and white cotton double cloth panel stylized parrots. 
r8"x5'5y8".TG 

679. Border of garment, tapestry with central motifs of "S" 
shaped elements composed of bird heads and plumes. 4' 2"x 
7". TG 

680. Half of a mantle showmg two slit-tapestry corners. Five 
separately woven bands of brown and white "huck" like 
weave alternate with bands of two-color warp float pat- 
terning. 4' 5'/2"x3' g'A". TG 

681. Headcloth of weft-knotted square mesh openwork, em- 
broidered with stepped fret design. 3' 10"x3' 41/2". TG 



682. Scale beam, carved and painted bird and geometric relief, 

cotton nets. 7%" h., 6" long. TG 
'683. Standing figure with three tabbed headdress and textile 

garments. 34" h. ANON 
684. Figure with one arm extended to side, the other (an attached 

piece) to front. Face painted red. 34" h. SZ 




661 






683 



THE ICA CULTURE, 1000-1470 A.D. 




690 



The craft production of the late south coast lea culture was com- 
petant but dull by comparison with the splendid art traditions that 
had preceded it. Textiles were usually ornamented with repetitive 
small figured geometric patterns and the pottery, consisting of a 
few rather elegant simple forms was decorated with the same 
motifs. Sculptured pieces were relatively rare. Our selection falls 
far short of representing all major types, but stresses the un- 
usual modeled wares. 

685. Cup, stylized heads and geometric motifs. Orange, blacl<, 
red and cream, V/^" h. ANON 

686. Jar, geometric pattern and band of mice. Orangeware, cream 
and black, 53/3" h. ANON 

687. Bowl, diamond textile design on exterior, stylized llamas on 
interior (Inca influence?). Black and orange, traces of cream, 
23/3" h., 7'/4" diameter. ANON 

688. House form, three stepped levels, modeled animal on 
lowest. Sides ornamented with horizontal bands of 
geometric decor. Cream, black, and red, 673" h. MRI 

689. Female figure, hands held palms up to front. Varied geo- 
metric decor on body and headdress. Cream, black, and 
orange, MVa" h. MNA 

*690. Large jar, figure lying across top. Head forming spout, 
panels of textile patterns. (Reminiscent of Nazca motif of 
fisherman lying on nets.) Red, orange, black, and cream, 
171/4" h. MNA 

691. Double vessel, cup and seated figure, bird on shoulder. 
Geometric decor. Red. orange, cream, and black, 6%" h. 
Ocucaje. MRI 

692. Effigy, jar, bowl on back, another held in hands arranged 
so liquid may flow through mouth from one bowl to the 
other. Red painted face, traces of black and cream, 8'/2" h. 
Palpa valley. (Provincial lea style.) ANON 

693. Mold for making solid figurines. Redware, 81/3x4". Cal- 
lango. lea valley. MRI 

694. Solid figurine, similar to mold 693. Face painted red. Black 
headband, cream body, 7/2" h. Santo Cristo, Nazca valley. 
HA 

695. Three solid figurines. Buff clay, plain. SZ 

A. Seated figure. 3" h. 

B. Seated figure. 264" h. 

C. Standing figure. 7" h. 



90 



ICA WOODEN OBJECTS 



ICA TEXTILES 



696. Standing female figure with cradle board on back, holding 
male child. 878" h. FT 

697. Double figure back to back, each holds trophy head. 5" h. 
TG 

698. Carved box for weaving tools. Frontal figures with crested 
headdress. 3'/2" h., 8%" long. Ocucaje. This type of box is 
found throughout the coast in the late period. PT 

699. Oval stool or dish with concave surface, tressel feet. 
41/2" h., 14%" long. Hda. Tacarara, lea valley. MRI 

700. Grave post, face at top painted red. Se'^" h. MRI 



701. Tapestry panel, 7 rows of stylized cat figures. 2' 6%" x. 

iMYs". Ocucaje. PT 
*702. Large Poncho type robe, frontal human and profile bird 
figures. Small bird motifs as space fillers. 2' 11 "x4' 6%". 
Cahuachi, Nazca valley. MRI 















702 



91 



THE INCA EMPIRE, 1470-1532 A.D. 



The far-flung Inca empire encountered by the Spaniards stretched 
from northern Ecuador southward into Chile and Argentina, a 
distance of 2500 miles. It was linked together by a vast system 
of well constructed roads and efficiently administered by a corps 
of highly trained officials. It was the most extensive and best 
organized political unit the Americas had ever seen, yet it had 
begun less than a century before the Spanish arrived, and some 
of its territories had been incorporated in the empire for a re- 
latively short time. 

The Incas' inspired leadership constituted their chief talent. They 
were not innovaters, but were quick to adopt and exploit the skills 
of the people they conquered. Their power was absolute, but just, 
and their high standards brought renewed prosperity to all parts 
of the realm. 




719 



92 



IMPERIAL INCA ART, 1438-1532 A.D. 

The forms of Inca art were rigidly prescribed and subjected to 
exacting standards. So all-pervading was its influence that arti- 
facts of the brief period are readily identifiable wherever they 
are encountered. It is unfortunate that we were unable to arrange 
loans from the University of Cuzco Museum which has the finest 
collection of imperial Inca Art, but we have assembled a few 
outstanding examples from other sources. 

IMPERIAL INCA CERAMICS 

703. Aryballoid jar with geometric branching plant motif. Brown 
and red, SYs" h. Cuzco. AICG 

704. Aryballoid jar similar to 703. Orangeware, red, black, and 
cream, 6" h. lea valley. MRI 

'705. Aryballoid jar, geometric decor. Orangeware, red, black, and 
cream, 878 "h. Island of Koati, LakeTitioaca. AMNH 

706. Flaring rim jar with loop handle, geometric decor. Orange- 
ware, red, black and cream, 12%" h. Lake Titicaca area. 
AMNH 

707. Straight sided bowl, two handles in the form of Pumas. 
Stylized headdress and geometric motifs. Red, black, 
orange, cream ground, 'i^/2' h., 6" diameter. Island of Koati, 
Lake Titicaca. AMNH 

708. Shallow tray with flaring handle. Tadpoles and catfish, 
pepper and seed motifs. Brown and black, 9%" h. Cuzco(?) 
AICG 

709. Libation cup in form of reclining llama. Brownware, 1%" h., 
4" long. AYO 

IMPERIAL INCA STONEWORK 

710. Libation cup, alpaca form. Type of soapstone, 3yg" h. ANON 

711. Libation cup, llama form. Limestone (grey), calcite (white), 
S'/s" h. ANON 

712. Puma, style shows Tiahuanaco influence but piece may date 
from colonial times. Rhyolite porphyry, 23" h., 281/2" long. 
Cuzco. MNA 

IMPERIAL INCA TEXTILES 

Like their predecessor the Wari people, the Inca wove fine inter- 
locking poncho shirts of prescribed designs for their officials. 
Patterns denoted rank and function. 

'713. Shirt, black and white checkerboard design with red "V" 
yoke. 2' 11 "x2' 6%". Chavina, Acari valley. MRI 

714. Shirt, checkerboard pattern of percentage sign-like motifs on 
yellow and black ground, horizontal bands of red and black 
beneath. 3' 1 y2"x2' 7". Inca valley. TMDC 

715. Fragment of Inca shirt, stepped diamond design. 2' 6"x 
IO'/b". Huara valley. RA 

IMPERIAL INCA STYLE METALWORK 

716. Pair of hollow gold figures, Cuzco. TMDC 

A. Standing male. 2'/2" h, 10.3 gm. 

B. Standing female. 23/3" h., 8.6 gm. 




720 



717. Solid silver female figure dressed in miniature garments 
and silver shawl pins. Figure lYs" h., dressed 2%" h. OS 

718. Solid silver female figure with horizontal bands of copper. 
9%" h. ANON 

*719. Silver llama with red lacquer inlay on saddle blanket 

(partly restored). 8%" h. AMNH 
*720. Silveralpaca. 9%" h. AMNH 



93 




705 



94 




713 



95 





738 



96 




736 



758 



725 (above) 



97 



PROVINCIAL INCA ART, 1470-1532 A.D. 



Though imperial Inca art is found in all parts of the empire, each 
area had its own style influenced by Inca conventions such as 
aryballoid form and flanged spout lip, but incorporating local 
traditions as well. It is symbolic of the success of the administra- 
tive policies of the Incas that these local Inca period styles 
represented a considerable revival of regional creative genius. 

THE TALLAN STYLE OF THE PIURA VALLEY 

In the Piura valley there was a revival of the use of the fine clays 
that had been an outstanding feature of Classic Vicus ceramics. 
The local style called Tallan produced some of the most colorful 
and delightful of all Inca period ceramics. 

All are stirrup spout bottles unless otherwise indicated. 

721 . Simple well polished bottle. Pure whiteware, 7y2" h. DS 

722. Two birds touching beaks. Whiteware, orange slip, 73/3" h. 
DS 

723. Single spout flask with loop handle. Orangeware, cream and 
black slip, sys" h. DS 

724. Long necked bird. Checkerboard wing design. Orangeware, 
black and cream. 6%" h. DS 

■725. Long necked bird. Creamware, orange, brown and black 

slip. 5%" h. DS 
726. Duck, checkerboard wing pattern. Orangeware, cream and 

black slip. e'A" h. DS 

The following four ceramics are called "pachas". They were 

used in a water cult ceremony and are vented on both ends. 
121 . Aryballoid jar on digging stick. Yellow-orangeware, 3%" h., 

14" long. DS 

728. Long necked bird (cormorant). Orangeware, brown slip, 
eys" h. DS 

729. Serpent. Orangeware, black and white slip, A''/^' h. DS 

730. Form of Inca tray full of corn, pineapple spout. Creamware, 
orange, brown and black slip, S'/s " h. ANON 

LAMBAYEQUE INCA CERAMICS, 1470-1532 AD. 

731. Jar, open mouthed puma head spout, two loop handles, 
cross hatch decor. Black, red and orange, cream ground, 
7%" h. Jayaca, Leche valley. MBL 

732. Effigy jar, seated, wrinkled, warty dog. Creamware, 6%" h. 
Provenience unknown. WG 

733. Head jar, braided hair, conical cap. Orangeware, cream and 
black slip, 5" h. MBL 

734. Modified aryballoid form, strap handle, face on neck, two 
bands diamond motif. Light orangeware, black and white 
slip, eya" h. MBL 

735. Aryballoid jar, neck and front panel painted with spider and 
fly motifs. Orangeware. cream, red, and black slip, 8" h. 
Cajamarca(?) MNA 

'736. Drum shaped stirrup spout bottle with bird form, tail to 
spout, beak to drum. Orangeware, SYj" h. Jayanco, Leche 
valley. MBL 
737. Llama hoof form bottle, stirrup in feline form. Mottled 
brownware, 7%" h. Provenience unknown, but probably 
from the far north coast, EN 



'738. Effigy bottle, strap handle, flaring spout. Seated female 
figure, child on right knee. Orangeware, black line face 
painting 7yg" h. Lambayeque valley. ML 

739. Effigy bottle, strap handle, flaring spout. Seated male figure 
carrying cluster of pots on back supported by head-band. 
Orangeware, cream slip, traces of black cursive designs. 
8'/2 " h. Lambayeque valley. DS 

740. Tall bottle with flaring spout, three bird forms at neck. 
Orangeware, cream paint. Traces of black cursive designs, 
10%" h. Lambayeque valley. DS 

CHIMU-INCA CERAMICS, 1470-1532 AD. 

Blackware, unless otherwise indicated. 
'741. Stirrup spout bottle, bound llama. 7%" h. WG 

742. Pacha in form of monkey. 3%" h. WG 

743. Head bottle. Thin, finely polished, 4%" h. (Compare with 
silver head beakers.) WG 

744. Stirrup spout bottle, bird seated on cube form. 9'/8 " h. Chan 
Chan. MAT 

745. Double vessel, spouts in form of two men carrying funerary 
litter. V/s" h. MNA 

746. Double vessel, similar to 745. Base restored. Orangeware, 
cream slip. 6%" h. AC 

INCA CHIMU METAL WORK, 1470-1532 A.D. 

747. Pair gold figures, Huaca de la Cruz, Leche valley. (Compare 
with # 716.) MBL 

A. Male figure holds drum and flute, whistle in mouth. 
134" h.,3.5gm. 

B. Female figure, holds trumpet and rattle, lyj" h., 3.75 gm. 

748. Gold figure of bird, drum in one hand, stick in other. %" h., 
2.1 gm. Tucume, Leche valley. MBL 

749. Silver head beaker. (Compare with # 743.) 8V2" h. ANON 

750. Wooden form over which silver head beakers were made. 
574" h. ANON 

751. Silver double faced head beaker. 12'/2" h-, 4%" diameter. 
HC 

'752. Wide silvered copper and shell bead collar necklace. Mold 
made repousse figures. \5Ysx28y^" . Chilaupi, Lambayeque 
valley. MBL 

753. Five silver "ear spoons", two pins with sculptured finials. 
MBL 

A. Seated monkey. 3" h.. 7 gm. 

B. Standing figure. 3/2" h., 8.5 gm. 

C. Bird with fish in beak. 3"h., 10.5 gm. 

D. Long beaked bird. 2" h., 5.6 gm. 

E. Long beaked bird (copper stem). 2y8"., 4.9 gm. 
F Pin, human figure. 1 " h., 1 .8 gm. 

G. Pin, human head. 3/5 " h., 4.1 gm. 

754. Three copper and bronze "Tumi" (chopper shaped) knives, 
sculptured pommels. Lambayeque valley. MBL 

A. Seated feline. Copper, 6" h. 

B. Two parrots eating corn. Bronze, 5yg" h. 

C. Four llama heads. Bronze, copper inlays on shaft. 5%" h. 



CENTRAL COAST INCA, 1470-1532 A.D. 

755. Modified aryballoid form, head on neck, arms in relief. 
Blackware, 7%" h. Pachacamac(?) AMNH 

756. Double flask form bottle, bird with crayfish in beak atop one. 
Blackware, 6%" h. Pachacamac. ANON 

757. Crouching feline effigy bottle. Greyware, 5%" h. Prove- 
nience unknown. ANON 

*758. Double vessel, house forms, figure painted on front. Bird 
atop one spout. Orangeware, cream and red slip, 1''/^" h. 
Chancay valley(?) ANON 

759. Puma effigy bottle, human face on stomach. Necklace of 
shell beads. Orangeware, orange, cream, and black paint, 
71/2" h. Chillon valley. AMNH 

760. Stirrup spout bottle, feline with human head in mouth. 
Orangeware, cream and black slip, 8%" h. Cajamaquilla, 
Rimac valley. DS 

761. Stirrup spout bottle, man standing arms akimbo. Orange- 
ware, cream and black slip, V/^" h. Cajamaquilla, Rimac 
valley. DS 

762. Effigy bottle, seated figure, arched headdress, elaborate ear 
ornaments. Orangeware, brown face paint, etc., Qyj" h. Pro- 
venience unknown. HYO. 




752 



SOUTH COAST INCA 



INCA PERIOD TEXTILES FROM OCUCAJE 



763. Modified aryballoid jar with strap handle, geometric decor. 
Orangeware, black and red, B'^" h. lea valley. EN 

764. Modified aryballoid jar. face on neck, arms in relief. Black- 
ware, 1^/2" h. Cahuachi, Nazca valley. HA 

765. Effigy jar, head on neck, arms in relief. Strap handle. 
Blackware, 6%" h. Provenience unknown. TG 

766. Kero form with face in relief. Blackware, 5'/2 " h. Prove- 
nience unknown. WG 

767. House effigy jar, spout in typical late lea bowl form. Black- 
ware, S'/a" h. lea valley(?) ANON 

768. Jar with loop handle. Geometric birds and crosses. Red, 
black, cream ground, A^/2" h. Paradones, Nazca valley. HA 

INCA WOODEN OBJECTS FROM THE ICA VALLEY, 
1470-1532 A.D. 

769. Steering oar for balsa raft boat(?). Pole ornamented with 
twenty red and yellow birds In squares. Outer row of twenty- 
five rats eating corn. Square pommel, geometric pierced 
work and eight standing red and yellow figures. 71 72" long. 
FT 

*770. Steering oar(?), paddle missing. Pole ornamented with row 
of ten standing figures In rectangles, outer row of ten reclin- 
ing red, green and beige figures, heads raised. Square 
pierced work pommel with three figures performing human 
sacrifice at top. Red and yellow paint, 48" long. Ocueaje. 
CS 

771. Lee board(?). Square pommel with geometric pierced work, 
nine standing figures at top. Six parrots on upper edge of 
blade. Red and yellow paint, 85" long. FT 



'772. Unfinished shirt (neck silt sewn together, side seams not 
joined). Fine geometric patterns in squares. 6' 572 "x2' 6". 
PT 
773. Two ornamental slings. GS 

A. '/sxsys". 

B. iy8X63/8". 

*774. Large hanging. Warp and weft interlock with weft brocading. 
Sixteen panels, cross with stepped border. 14' '/2 "xS' 6%". 
wool. PT 
775. Large hanging, diagonal rows of large stepped medallions. 
Multicolored with orange held, 11' 9'/8"x7' %". Alpaca 
wool. PT 



100 




770 (detail) 



101 




772 




774 (detail) 



NORTH HIGHLANDS 



FAR NORTH COAST 



NORTH COAST 



CENTRAL COAST 



SOUTH COAST 



SOUTH HIGHLANDS 



r^ 



CAJAMARCA 



WARI-CAJAMARCA 



TRANSITION CHAVIN 



LATECHAVIN 



MIDDLE CHAVIN 



EARLY CHAVIN 



LOCAL STYLES 



MIDDLE CHIMU 



LAMBAYEQUE 



WARI-LAMBAYEQUE 



LATE NEGATIVE VICUS 



EARLY NEGATIVE 
VICUS 



NEGATIVE 
TRANSITION 



CLASSICAL VICUS, 
VIRU PHASE 



CLASSICAL VICUS, 
MATURE PHASE 



CLASSICAL VICUS, 
CHAVINOID PHASE 



LOCAL STYLES 



INCA-CHIMU 



MIDDLE CHIMU 



EARLY CHIMU 



LOCAL STYLES 



INCA-CHAMCAY 



LOCAL STYLES 



NAZCA-WARI 



MIDDLE NAZCA 5 



EARLY NAZCA 3 

2 



PROTO NAZCA -| 



LATE PARACAS 10 



MIDDLE 
PARACAS 



EARLY 
PARACAS 



5 

4 

CHAVINOID- 3 
PARACAS 



LOCAL STYLES 



LOCAL STYLES 



TIAHUANACO 



LOCAL STYLES 



NORTH 
HIGHLANDS 



FAR NORTH 
COAST 



NORTH 
COAST 



CENTRAL SOUTH SOUTH 

COAST COAST HIGHLANDS 



Inca-Cajamarca Tallan 



INCA 
HORIZON 



LATE 
PERIOD 



WARI 
HORIZON 



EARLY 
PERIOD 



CHAVIN 
HORIZON 



Inca-Chimu Inca-Pachacamac 



Ica-lnca Imperial Inca 




Wari-Recuay 



Wari- 
LambayequG 



647 



North Coast 
Wari 



G62 



Huara 



686 



South Coast 
Wari 



220 175 283 

Chavin Chongoyape Cupisnique 



426 





552 



Wari 




544 



Chavinoid 




22 



44 



27 



30 



322 



74 



All but the following photographs were taken by Robert E, Mates. 
New York: 

Paul Katz, New York: Nos. 200, 282, 552, 557, 592, 616, 628, 632, 
690, 705; 

Textile Museum, Washington, DC, D. L. Varela, Staff Photog- 
rapher: Nos. 366, 564, 650; 
Woltz Studio, Washington, D.C.: Nos. 373, 377, 530, 531, 702, 713, 

Drawings by Joellyn Duesberry after designs on Peruvian ceramics: 
Cover and title page, details from cataligue no. 272; p. 42, detail 
from catalogue no. 248; p. 47, detail from catalogue no. 294; p. 50, 
detail from catalogue no. 321 ; p. 54, detail from catalogue no. 321 ; 
p. 56, detail from catalogue no. 397; p. 58, detail from catalogue 
no. 425; p. 78, detail from catalogue no. 603; p. Ill, detail from 
catalogue no. 221 . 

Maps and Charts by Arthur S. Congdon. 



STAFF, THE SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM 



Director 



Thomas M. Messer 



Curator 

Associate Curator 
Assistant Curator 
Research Fellow 
Librarian 

Conservation 
Photography 
Design 
Registrar 

Public Affairs 

Publicity 

Membership 



Louise Averill Svendsen 
Edward F. Fry 
Diane Waldman 
Linda Konheim 
Mary Joan Hall 

Orrin Riley and Saul Fuerstein 
Robert E. Mates 
Arthurs. Congdon 
Roger Anthony 

Robin M. Green 
Ann S. Helmuth 
Istar Schwager 



Business Administrator 



Glenn H. Easton, Jr 



Administrative Assistant 
Office Manager 
Purchasing Agent 
Sales Supervisor 
Building Superintendent 
Head Guard 



Viola H. Gleason 
Agnes R. Connolly 
Elizabeth M. Funghini 
Consuelo C. Murphy 
Peter G. Loggin 
George J. Sauve 



Exhibition 68/6 

5,000 copies of this catalogue designed by Arthur S. Congdon 
have been printed by Johan Enschede en Zonen, Haarlem, The Netherlands 
in August 1 968 for the Trustees of The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation 
on the occasion of the loan exhibition "Mastercraftsmen of Ancient Peru" 








THE 

SOUTH COAST 

OF PERU 



THE SOLOMON R.GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM 1071 FIFTH AVENUE NEW YORK